Posted: 22.09.2011
By Dr. Charlotte Krause
The lecture by the German scholar Dr. (Mrs.) Charlotte Krause was printed in a small booklet in 1929 by Phulchandji Ved (Publisher), Secretary, Shri Yashovijaya Jain Granthamala, Bhavnegar (Kathiawar) and reissued by Prof. Sagarmal Jain and Dr. Shriprakash Pandey in the book German Jaina Śrāvikā Dr. Charlotte Krause. Her Life and Literature (Vol. I, Parsvanatha Vidyapitha Series 119, Varanasi 1999, pp...
Posted: 22.09.2011
By Dr. Charlotte Krause
The lecture by the German scholar Dr. (Mrs.) Charlotte Krause was printed in a small booklet in 1929 by Phulchandji Ved (Publisher), Secretary, Shri Yashovijaya Jain Granthamala, Bhavnegar (Kathiawar) and reissued by Prof. Sagarmal Jain and Dr. Shriprakash Pandey in the book German Jaina Śrāvikā Dr. Charlotte Krause. Her Life and Literature (Vol. I, Parsvanatha Vidyapitha Series 119, Varanasi 1999, pp...
Posted: 16.09.2011
By Hermann Jacobi
The article was first published in Transactions of the 3rd International Congress for the History of Religions (Vol. 2, Oxford 1908, pp. 59-66) and reissued later in the miscellany volume Studies in Jainism (Allahabad 1946, pp. 48-60). To make this online reissue citeable, the page numbers are added to the text ( see squared brackets ). The Metaphysics and Ethics of the Jainas [59] All who approach Jain...
Posted: 15.09.2011
By Hermann Jacobi
This essay (part I) by Hermann Jacobi is taken from his work Studies in Jainism (Allahabad 1946, pp. 61-85). To make this online reissue citeable, the page numbers are added to the text ( see squared brackets ). The Place of Jainism in the Development of Indian Thought (Part I) [61] In the present paper I propose to investigate the development of philosophical ideas in ancient India at the time when Jainism...
Posted: 15.09.2011
By Hermann Jacobi
This essay (part II) by Hermann Jacobi is taken from his work Studies in Jainism (Allahabad 1946, pp. 61-85). To make this online reissue citeable, the page numbers are added to the text ( see squared brackets ). The Place of Jainism in the Development of Indian Thought (Part II) For Part the First of this essay see ► The Place of Jainism in the Development of Indian Thought (Part I) Part the Second The Vedic...
Posted: 25.08.2011
By Dr. Nalini Joshi
Jainism: Philosophy and Practice in India A presentation given in the Panel Discussion arranged jointly by the Dept. of Philosophy, Mumbai and IPC - for the AAPA Conference on 22nd October 2010 Introduction Knowingly or unknowingly, a specific thought-model was created by Indologists, to look at Jainism, up to the middle of 20th century. A certain pattern was reflected in innumerable references where the term...
Posted: 15.03.2011
By Kristi L. Wiley
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online) Vol. 7, No. 3 (2011) 1-26 The Significance Of Adhyavasāya In Jain Karma Theory
Posted: 18.01.2011
By Dr. Mahavir Raj Gelra
27 Mahāprajña’s Contribution to Anekānta Philosophy Its Real-Time Applications Introduction One question – what is the solution to the problems and miseries of mankind – is bothering all of us alike. Is the answer political, philosophical, mathematical, social, religious or divine? The answer cannot be political alone, because of vested interests. It cannot be philosophical only, as it has to deal with...
Posted: 16.01.2011
By Dr. Geeta Mehta
26 Humanism and Jainism The origin of humanism Humanism as a philosophical and literary movement originated in Italy in the second half of the 14th century and diffused all over Europe. As an atheistic theory it was conceived in 17th century by French philosophers but as a theistic, pragmatic theory it was conceived indirectly around 2000 B.C. at the time of Vedas, Sramana Tradition and Upanishads in India. The...
Posted: 11.01.2011
By Prof. Sagarmal Jain
22 The Historical Development of Jaina Yoga System and Impacts of Other Yoga-Systems on it A Comparative and Critical Study Jainism, like the other religions of Indian origin attaches supreme importance to Yoga and dhyāna (meditation) as a means to spiritual advancement and emancipation. According to the Uttarādhyayanasūtra, one can know the real nature of self through right knowledge, one can have faith on...
Posted: 07.01.2011
By Prof. Dr. D.N. Bhargava
20 Some Observations on Buddhist and Jaina Ethics The points of similarity between the Buddhistic and the Jaina views of life are so glaringly evident that one is likely to miss the distinction between the two which is perhaps equally important, if not more, to understand them in their proper perspective. The attitude of Lord Buddha for the Jaina sādhus is refected in the Upālisutta, where he asks Upāli, a...
Posted: 06.01.2011
By Jérôme Petit
19 Banārasīdās’s Karmachattīsī Thirty-six stanzas on Karma Introduction The well-known merchant of Jaunpur, Banārasīdās (1586-1643), who gave to the world the first Indian autobiography, wrote in Braj in Agra, where he was considered as the leader of an Adhyātma group, a series of philosophical poems gathered after his death by his friend Jagjīvan under the title Banārasīvīlāsa. The text...
Posted: 04.01.2011
By Prof. Dr. Johannes Bronkhorst
17 Kundakunda versus Sāṃkhya on the soul There have been several conceptions of the soul in the history of Jainism. The probably oldest text of the Śvetāmbara Jaina canon, the Ācārāṅga Sūtra / Āyāraṃga Sutta , has some passages that reveal an idea about the soul that is very different from what came to be the classical Jaina conception. Dalsukh D. Malvania (1981) and others have drawn attention...
Posted: 05.11.2010
By Dr. Nalini Joshi
Some Distinctive Features of Pañcāstikāya A Research Paper presented in the Seminar on "Ancient Prakrit Texts" at Śravanabelagola by NIPSAR and BVP on 12th and 13th October 2010 1. Introduction When we look at Jainism, as a philosophical system (Darśana) the available Jaina literature can be divided into four ages: Canonical Age Anekānta Age Nyāya Age Navya-nyāya Age. According to this division we can...
Posted: 10.10.2010
By Dr. Kokila Shah
International Conference on Jainism Through the Ages A Historical Perspective 8th, 9th & 10th October 2010 Mysore, India The Concept of Divinity in Jainism ‘Religion is expression of divinity in man’ Jainism represents sraman current of thought in Indian tradition. It is an independent philosophy, a rational religion and an ethical system par excellence. It does not believe in creator God and yet...
Posted: 09.10.2010
By Prof. Dr. D.N. Bhargava
International Conference on Jainism Through the Ages A Historical Perspective 8th, 9th & 10th October 2010 Mysore, India Some Turning Points in the History of Jaina Religion and Philosophy It is sometimes said that there has not been any appreciable development in the history of Jaina philosophy. The fact is that from time to time, there have been made such startling statements in Jaina works, that stand...
Posted: 31.12.2006
By W.J. Johnson
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online) Vol. 2, No. 4 (2006) 1-18 Are Jaina Ethics Really Universal?
Posted: 30.10.2006
By Dr. Peter Flügel
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online) Vol. 2, No. 3 (2006) 1-8 Jaina Philosophy and Religion Jaina Philosophy and Religion
Posted: 06.07.2005
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Bibliography For the specialists, we mention in abbreviated form the sources used or mentioned by us. Avashyaka I (old formula): Refer to Dasavaikalika IV. -- Avashyaka I-VI (Avashyaka I etc.): Jaina Agama Series No.15.1977; also Haribhadra's Tika, 1916-17 and LEUMANN 1934 (fn.2 supra). -- Avashyaka V (oldest known Jaina work): Refer to Acaranga I 8. -- Avashyaka VI (early text): Upasakadasah. Shvetambaras and...
Posted: 05.07.2005
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Postscript In conclusion, a reference to the relationship of Jainism to general Indian culture helps to view the situation in a still wider perspective. Even the "practical" or "pragmatic" literature of Jainism discussed or alluded to in our paper (ethics, monastic discipline, ritual, primitive karman doctrine) is of a scope which specialists themselves might easily underestimate. This is not to mention the...
Posted: 04.07.2005
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Summary The reference to ACHARYA TULSI may be broadened through a discussion of the question as to whether or not the ahimsa is a Jaina message to the rest of the world. An absolutely positive answer to this question is difficult under the circumstances. On the one hand, as we know, the Jaina ahimsa contains a great deal concerning "violence" and "non-violence" which is unfamiliar to the non-Jaina world. The...
Posted: 03.07.2005
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Salvation The emphasis on the Avashyaka-Sutra up to this point has veiled the metaphysical framework of the various issues. The question is raised as to what this all amounts to. Even the minutest instruction is – theoretically at least – linked with an overriding philosophy. Jainism is a religion of salvation ("Erlösungsreligion"). Every look at the relevant Indological publications shows that...
Posted: 02.07.2005
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Avashyaka VI, Pratyakhyana The title "Pratyakhyana" (renunciation) is based on the verb pratyakhyami ("I renounce") which is used inter alia in connection with the Five Vows. As we know, these basic rules are not represented as precepts but as vows to renounce certain misdeeds. They could just as well be represented as objects of repentance (this is in fact the case in the fifth position of the long chain in...
Posted: 01.07.2005
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Avashyaka V, Kayotsarga The kayotsarga is a difficult exercise. The monk meditates in a motionless position, the standing position being in the texts obviously preferred to the seated position. In Jaina art, the Tirthankaras are shown standing or seated (illustrations 5-8), and these two types can be linked with the kayotsarga (the standing Tirthankaras at least are unequivocal representations of this pose). In...
Posted: 30.06.2005
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Avashyaka IV, Pratikramana The fourth Avashyaka is called "repentance" and consists mainly of lists of offences, each list bracketed together by the expression of repentance. Repentance, pratikramana, is not the only subject of the Avashyaka-Sutra, but, as mentioned already, it occupies in it an important position. First of all we quote a passage which still reflects the idiom of the oldest known Jaina work: I...
Posted: 29.06.2005
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Avashyaka III, Vandana "Vandana" stands for salutation. The third Avashyaka may be described as a ritual of repentance combined with a " ritual of approach " . However difficult the text may be, it gives a good impression of early ritualism. At the end of the day the junior monk (student) approaches the senior (teacher) and subsequently takes his leave. The action is described, not as coming and going in the...
Posted: 28.06.2005
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Avashyaka II, Caturvimshatistava The second Avashyaka is a hymn (stava) to the twenty-four (caturvimshati) Tirthankaras and therefore called "Caturvimshatistava". The Tirthankaras ("they who created the tirtha or path toward release from worldly existence") or Jinas ("the victors") are the founders of the Jaina religion. Except for the last two, however, they are not historical figures but those of a legendary...
Posted: 27.06.2005
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Avashyaka I, Samayika The first Avashyaka is a moral declaration. It is based on an old formula of the Jaina tradition which has been slightly extended so as to form a self-contained element of the sixfold Avashyaka sequence. The Samayika introduces the subject of repentance which is prominent in the Avashyaka-Sutra (I, III-V). The related subjects of confession -- and atonement -- are not mentioned in the...
Posted: 26.06.2005
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Introduction: Until recently, Jainism was known outside India only in academic circles. Nowadays, however, closer contacts between India and other countries -- and the immediate interest aroused by a religion which stands for "non-violence" -- have produced a change. These facts prompt us to present a sort of close up view of Jaina ethics as will be seen in the sequel.

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