Posted: 19.05.2014
By Prof. Dr. Jeffery D. Long
Post Date: 17.12.2012 JAINISM TIMELINE Distant Past. According to Jain tradition, the first through the twenty-second Tirthankaras (twenty-four enlightened beings who emerge in the course of a cosmic cycle to teach the path to liberation) had enormous life spans and date back in time as far as several billion years. Each Tirthankara has a shorter life span than the previous one. The current series ends with...
Posted: 24.10.2012
 
Introduction It is remarkable that Mahatma Gandhi had grown a close intimacy with Kavi Rajchandraji. Mahatmaji had expressed this experience of his life in very impressive language. He writes, "Tolstoy, Ruskin and Rajchandbhai the three great personalities have influenced me much. Tolstoy through his book and correspondence Ruskin by his "Unto this last!" and Rajchandbhai by his close contact. When I had grown...
Posted: 19.10.2012
 
Mohandas K. Gandhi, whom many revere as the Father of India, was not a Jain by birth. His parents were Vaishnavas and he was born into that Hindu sect in the city of Porbandar, Gujarat on October 2nd, 1869. Jainism has a strong influence in Gujarat because many Jains live there. Growing up in that province with a pious mother, Gandhi was constantly exposed to the Jain doctrines. Although he was not Jain by...
Posted: 04.10.2012
By Justice T.K. Tukol
Jainism in South India There may not be any other religion in India which is as much misunderstood and misrepresented as Jainism. Many scholars have asserted that it is an off-shoot of Buddhism and a revolt from Hinduism. Even an eminent historian like Arnold Toynbee has asserted that Bhagavan Mahavira is the “founder of Jainism” and that the Jainas were “amongst the fossilized relics of similar societies...
Posted: 06.09.2012
By Pravin K. Shah
Introduction The discussion about the Samvatsari Day and Jain Calendar is always a very sensitive issue. It requires careful research and interpretation. The article presented here is not to hurt any Jain sect or its practices but to explore the subject objectively. Almost every year when we celebrate Paryushan and Samvatsari day, there is some confusion and disagreement on what day to observe Samvatsari day...
Posted: 14.08.2012
 
Jainism during Nanda Dynasty occupied a significant position. According to Jain texts the rulers of the Namda Dynasty were followers of Jainism and had many Jain ministers in their courts. According to Jain texts and inscriptions the rulers of the Nanda Dynasty were the followers of Jain cult. There are several literary evidences that reflect the inclination of the Nanda rulers towards the Jain religion. The...
Posted: 13.08.2012
 
Jainism during Kunika Ajatashatru prospered considerably. Kunika Ajatasatru was a ruler of the Magadha Empire and a follower of Lord Mahavira. Jainism during Kunika Ajatashatru flourished significantly. All the kings and the royal generations of this period wholly patronised and followed Jainism. They even provided all the required facilities to develop the literary and cultural activities of Jainism. The Jains...
Posted: 10.08.2012
 
Jainism under Chandragupta Maurya flourished significantly. Chandragupta Maurya was an ardent follower of Bhadrabahu who was a Jain saint. Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of the Mauryan Empire. He succeeded in conquering most of the Indian subcontinent. With his accession to the throne Jainism assumed a new phase in the Indian history. According to the Jain texts he is believed to have been born in a high...
Posted: 09.08.2012
 
Ancient History of Jainism can be traced back to the time of Bhagwan Rishabh Dev. It was under the reign of Chandragupta Maurya that Jainism gained recognition. History of Jainism dates back to the time of Bhagwan Rishabh Dev or Adinath. He was the first of the 24 Tirthankaras and belonged to the House of Ikshwaku, also known as the "House of the Sun". According to the Jain philosophy, Bhagwan Rishabh Dev was...
Posted: 08.08.2012
 
Jainism in the Deccan region had a strong hold. In the regions like Mysore, Kannada and areas of Mumbai and Madras Presidency Jainism had received an upsurge by the royal families. Numerous temples which are now in ruins to a great extent, as also the inscriptions and literary information prove that Jainism had numerous followers in the past and that it experienced a great boom in Maharashtra, in the Kannad...
Posted: 07.08.2012
 
Bhavnas in Jainism described about the nature of soul. It tells that the ultimate aim of life is to attain Nirvana or Moksha. Bhavnas in Jainism relates to the true nature of life. It describes about the soul that remains detached from all worldly attachments and even from the body. Thus, all humans need to follow the path of truth to attain Moksha or Nirvana. Jain religion puts a significant stress on the...
Posted: 06.08.2012
 
Jainism in Mughal Period received great importance. The rulers of Mughal Dynasty honoured many Jain saints and scholars and also gave them various epithets. During the rule of the Mughal Dynasty rulers like Babar (1526-30), Humayun (1530-40), Sher Shah Suri (1540-55), Akbar (1556-1605), Jahangir (1605-27), Shah Jahan (1627-58), Aurangzeb (1658-1707) became kings respectively. Amongst the later Mughals, only the...
Posted: 03.08.2012
 
Jainism during Delhi Sultanate could not flourish much as some of the rulers were intolerant. However, many great Jain scholars received honour at the hands of the rulers. The rulers of Delhi were of Turk origin and followed Islam religion. They were intolerant towards the followers of Jainism and Hinduism. They even indulged in slaughtering of non-Muslims and destroying their property. They demolished temples...
Posted: 02.08.2012
 
Jainism in Mediaeval Period received much importance and was patronised by rulers of different dynasties. During this period Jain doctrine, scriptures, construction of Jain temples and installation of Jain images received much importance. Jainism in mediaeval India flourished to a great extent. The emperors of the Delhi Sultanate, Mughal Dynasty and the Rajput Clans patronised Jain religion. During the...
Posted: 01.08.2012
 
Mahavira was probably a senior contemporary of Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism. The Buddhist texts mention Mahavira as an enlightened being. However some scholars believe that probably they belonged to different periods and had no contact with each other. According to one version, Mahavira spent some time in the company of Gosala, the founder of Ajivika sect and the Buddha, the founder of Buddhism,...
Posted: 30.07.2012
 
The life and teachings of Bhagwan Mahavira is a glorious chapter of infinite compassion as the he promoted universal welfare. He was the benefactor, unequaled guide to mankind for leading right path of life and to establish universal peace and solidarity. There are twenty four Tirthankaras, also known as Jinas, meaning Self Conquerors in Jainism. Among them the first Bhagwan Rishabha is universally regarded as...
Posted: 27.07.2012
 
Monks of the Digambara sect In the Digambara asceticism the monks are known as Muni or Muni Maharaj. They are organized in two different sanghas or groups which are known after the master of the group or Acharya. The one who wants to renounce the world on religious grounds, begins to qualify successively for the 11 basic vows. He starts to control his behavior, to abstain from violence, to practice truth, to...
Posted: 26.07.2012
By Manish Modi
|| ॐ श्री पार्श्वनाथाय नमः || Aum Shri Parshvanathaya Namah Summarized Life of Jina Parshvanatha Based on Acarya Gunabhadra’s Uttarapurana Lord Parshvanatha is the 23rd Tirthankara in the Jain tradition. He was born to King Vishvasena and Queen Vasundhara, the rulers of Varanasi. He was born on the 11th day of Pausha. His birth was celebrated with great joy and pomp by...
Posted: 26.07.2012
 
Monks and Nuns of the Shvetambara sect The Shvetambara sect is divided into a number of sub-divisions, called gaccha , which is a community of monks. The various communities are known after their Acharya, the master. Such an order of monks and nuns is called sangha and is again divided into various parivars , i.e. families. The head of each such family is a senior monk or nun. It is advised that the monks and...
Posted: 25.07.2012
By Dr. H.A. Parshwanath
There are seen five phases in the Jaina ascetism. These include Brahmacharya, Kshullakha, Ailaka, Digambara and Aryika. These ascetics were traveling continuously from one place to another. Hence they did not require mutt, the residential place to stay permanently in a single place. In the later days a sect of ascetics called Bhattaraka (or Bhattarakha) Swami evolved to take cognizance of Shravakas to lead them...
Posted: 24.07.2012
 
Illuminated manuscripts The study, recitation and veneration of sacred scriptures are a primary religious focus of the Jains. Important sermons, canonical texts and commentaries were transmitted orally long before being committed to writing. Exactly when Jain texts began to be illustrated is uncertain; the oldest surviving examples date from around the 10th-11th century, but many state that they were copied...
Posted: 23.07.2012
By Indrajeet Mohanty
Orissa has allured almost all the religious cults and sects right from her hoary past, whether for her tribal majority or her affluent mercantile base or her spirit of assimilation, is really, exactly not known. The earliest of the off-shoots of Brahmanism, Jainism made its presence felt in the state as early as the 7th century B.C. Excepting for one historical phase during the reign of Mahameghavahana King...
Posted: 20.07.2012
 
Jain Archaeological Evidences of post-Sunga Period have been found in several places of Northern India. These range from inscriptions, temples and idols of various Jains of this period. Jain Archaeological Evidences of Post Sunga Period have been found scattered all over Northern India. Inscriptions and statues of various Jains of this period (B.C. 188 to A.D. 319) have been excavated from different places...
Posted: 19.07.2012
 
The artistic traditions of the three major early Indian religions - Jainism, Buddhism, and Hinduism - all reflect the yogic ideal in their figural art. The commissioning of images which extol these virtues was an important aspect of the devotional activity of the lay community. The ascetic, or yogi, free of possessions, spiritual and material, exemplifies the most honoured way of life in India. The artistic...
Posted: 17.07.2012
By Kudavasal Balasubramaniyam
The Sundaresvara temple at Sendalai near Tanjore is well known to students of Tamil arts. It carries inscriptions of Pallava, Pandya and Muttaraiya rulers and refers to a great Maha-kali temple at Niyamam, a village nearby. The Pallava ruler Nandivarman III, the victor of Tellaru, and the Pandya ruler Maran Cadaiyan Varaguna II paid personal visits and endowed gold for the worship of the Goddess. The pillars...
Posted: 13.07.2012
By Dr. Tirtharaj Bhoi
The Indian religions provide an exciting field for study. Because of the pluralistic expression, it has some problems to be studied. If we look into the background of the religious studies in Western Orissa, it is a very complex situation requiring deep investigation. The main focal point of the papers is to provide an in-depth information and analytic historical account of Jainism. Jainism has been revealed...
Posted: 12.07.2012
 
Jainism evolved in the eastern part of India around 550 BCE. More or less at the same time, maybe a little bit later, Buddhism, with almost similar thoughts, was developing in the same part of India. The founder of Jainism, Lord Mahavira was a contemporary of Lord Buddha, the founder of Buddhism and even the Buddhist texts called Lord Mahavira 'an enlightened being'. In the sixth century BCE and the preceding...
Posted: 11.07.2012
 
Jainism and other Indian religious traditions The four ancient Indian religious traditions of Jainism, Ajivikism, Buddhism and Hinduism developed in South Asia over a period of more than a thousand years. Whilst Hinduism and Jainism continued to flourish, Ajivikism died out and Buddhism disappeared from most parts of India in the medieval period. However, despite its decline in India, Buddhism spread throughout...
Posted: 10.07.2012
 
Religious festivals play an important part in the Jain community. They provide a focus for communal celebration and an opportunity to show devotion and gain merit. Participation in these festivals is optional, not obligatory. The principal festivals in the Jain calendar are: Mahamastakabhisheka festival (held every 12 years) The Mahamastakabhisheka festival is held every twelve years to honour Lord Bahubali...
Posted: 05.07.2012
 
11th century Kannada inscription found from a ruined Jain temple Historian and research scholar D. N. Akki Gogi from Yadagir district has unearthed an 11th century inscription written in Kannada from a ruined Jain temple in Allur village in Gulbarga district. According to the experts, the inscription, which is on a stone pillar, was written in the form of Kannada that was used in 1050 AD. The inscription...
Posted: 04.07.2012
 
Jinas Veneration of the 24 Jinas is the most significant devotional focus in Jainism. These perfected-beings serve as role models to guide the faithful on the proper path to liberation from the endless cycles of rebirth. While all are revered as great teachers, four of the Jinas occupy the most exalted positions and have received particular attention in textual and artistic portrayals. Rishabhanatha, the 1st...
Posted: 03.07.2012
By Annie Besant
Let us look more closely at right conduct, for here the Jaina practice becomes specially interesting; and wise are many of his ways, in dealing especially with the life of the layman. Jainas are divided into two great bodies: the layman, who is called a Srāvaka, and the ascetic, the Yati. These have different rules of conduct in this sense only, that the Yati carries to perfection that for which the layman is...
Posted: 02.07.2012
By Annie Besant
When we come to look at the teaching from the outside - I will take the inside presently - we find certain canonical Scriptures, as we call them, analogous to the Pitakas of the Buddhists, forty-five in number; they are the Siddhānta, and they were collected by Bhadrabāka, and reduced to writing, between the third and fourth centuries before Christ. Before that, as was common in India, they were handed down...
Posted: 29.06.2012
By Annie Besant
Brothers: - We shall find ourselves this morning in a very different atmosphere from that in which we were yesterday, and in which we shall be tomorrow. We shall not now have around us the atmosphere of romance, of chivalry, that we find both in the faith of Islam and in that of the Sikhs. On the contrary we shall be in a calm, philosophic, quiet atmosphere. We shall find ourselves considering the problems of...
Posted: 28.06.2012
By Dr. Rudi Jansma
The paper, which was published in Sunrise Magazine (April/May 2005) , based on pp.37-43 of the author's Een introductie tot het jainisme , Uitgeverij Ankh-Hermes, Deventer 2005. Ahimsa paramo dharma : Nonviolence is the highest religion Nonviolence, ahimsa, is the central doctrine of Jainism. It also plays an important role in Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, and other religions, but none of them has...
Posted: 27.06.2012
By Dr. Rudi Jansma
The paper was first published in Sunrise Magazine (October/November 2000) Any one of you who has once felt the touch of the god within never is the same again. Never can be the same again. Your life is changed; and you can have this awakening at any moment, any moment that you will take it. - G. de Purucker The Jains are a religious group in India, comprising less than one percent of that country's population,...
Posted: 26.06.2012
By Eloise Hart
The paper was first published in Sunrise Magazine (February 1976) The Logic of Jain Mystical Doctrines The teachings of Jainism are presented in their sutras and commentaries with such mathematical exactness and logic one can't help exclaiming, how true, how clear, how reasonable! And at the same time he feels a stirring of higher faculty. Intuition and imagination are alerted and grasp at meanings too tenuous...
Posted: 25.06.2012
 
Both Mahavira and the Buddha belonged to the Vedic Indian tradition. They were born into the warrior caste (ksatriya), and lived in eastern India, in an area of the Ganges valley including the modern state of Bihar. The new thinkers questioned the dominant Vedic Brahmanical orthodoxy (in which an entity called brahman was considered supreme) and its stratified caste system with brahmins (priests) at the top...
Posted: 25.06.2012
By Eloise Hart
The paper was first published in Sunrise Magazine (January 1976) A Lamp of the True Light Vast as is the legacy of the skilled and illustrious Jain scholars and artisans, equally extensive is the contribution of the humble and industrious aspirants whose dedication and perseverance is their bulwark. Both, irrespective of position or skill, draw inspiration and strength from three basic rules or jewels of...
Posted: 22.06.2012
By Eloise Hart
The paper was first published in Sunrise Magazine (December 1975) The Twenty-four "Buddhas" of Jainism The barefoot beggar who wanders through India sweeping the dust from his path lest unintentionally he crush by his step some beetle or seed may very well be a cultivated and highly intelligent individual. A follower perhaps of the ancient religion of Jainism whose members, in business, government, university...
Posted: 21.06.2012
By Dr. Harischandra Kaviratna
The paper was first published in Sunrise Magazine (March 1973) The mighty task of bringing together the various factions and of and revitalizing the great philosophy underlying the ancient Vedas was undertaken by two great luminaries born in the line of Kshattriyas, who vehemently revolted against animal sacrifice and the ritualized Vedic religion. These two spiritual sons of India were none other than...
Posted: 20.06.2012
 
The Jains worship idols of the Jinas, Tirthankars, who are reverend as supreme beings but as the time passed by the Jains also started worshipping many other deities, yaksas and yakshinis , in Jain temples. Many wonder who are they? How did they get there? How did they get such an importance? Should they be there? The answer to the first question is, even though at times it may seem that they get more...
Posted: 18.06.2012
By Prof. Dr. Adinath Neminath Upadhye
Photos: Photo no. 1 Bahubali, Jaincave, Badami . Photo no. 2 Bahubali, Kalugumalai. Photo no. 3 Sculptured panels of Bahubali and Parsvanatha. Photo no. 4 Annamali, Samanar Koyil (rock-cut temple), Jaina images cut on a boulder. Photo no. 5 (i) Penance of Bahubali, Jain Caves at Ellora. Photo no. 5 (ii) Photo no. 5 (iii) Photo no. 5 (iv) Photo no. 5 (v) Photo no. 5 (vi) Photo no. 5 (vii) Photo no. 6...
Posted: 15.06.2012
By Prof. Dr. Adinath Neminath Upadhye
The statue of Bahubali stands on the summit of the hill possibly carved-out of a boulder capping its peak. It is surrounded by a temple, the raparts of which are as high as the lower half of the image. It is cut out of fine grained light grey granite resting on the spot. It stands all nude with arms hanging down straight. The pedestal of the image represents as open lotus. There are anthills, cut in stone, with...
Posted: 14.06.2012
By Prof. Dr. Adinath Neminath Upadhye
The paper was published in February 1982 in Pratishthapana - A Commemoration Volume of the Pratishthapana and the Mahamastakabhisheka Ceremons of Bhagawan Bahubali at Dharmasthala , pp. 15-25. Bahubali - Gommatesvara श्रीमन्नभेयजातः प्रथममनसिजो नाभिराजस्य नप्ता देहं संसारभोगं तृणामिव...
Posted: 13.06.2012
By Prof. Dr. S. Prabhakar
The paper was published in February 1982 in Pratishthapana - A Commemoration Volume of the Pratishthapana and the Mahamastakabhisheka Ceremons of Bhagawan Bahubali at Dharmasthala , pp. 7-8. Shri Dharmasthala has a history of several centuries. This is one of the most ancient institutions of South India. In the early days the place was called "Kuduma"; "Kodu" means "to give". Therefore, "Koduma" or "Kuduma"...
Posted: 11.06.2012
By Hemant Shah
A paper read at a seminar on Jain Philosophy and Epistemology organized by the The B.L. Institute of Indology, Delhi in December 1990. Introduction Just like the concept of reality, Jainism has its own theory regarding the existence and nature of soul. What is important to note is the fact that Jainism accepts the existence of soul. It is atmavadi darshana ; and the soul, according to Jainism, has an inherent...
Posted: 08.06.2012
By Hemant Shah
Abstract Jainism is the philosophy and religion of Jainas- the followers of religion preached and practiced by the Tirthankaras, the last of whom was Lord Mahavir. Jainism is one of the nine systems of Indian Philosophy; and one of the systems that is considered as an Atheistic in its nature. In this paper, I have tried to show that Jainism is not atheistic; it is Theistic, believing in god and it has its own...
Posted: 14.05.2012
By Kurt Titze
Monks And Nuns It makes no difference, whether you adhere to the orthodox belief that Jainism is a periodically reoccurring religion or to the view, expounded in most books on Jainism by western authors, that it began with Mahavira (599-527 bc) or possibly with Parshva or Parshvanatha (the Sanskrit word natha, meaning 'Lord', is a 'honorific' implying respect) about 250 years earlier - the answer to the query...
Posted: 07.05.2012
By Pravin K. Shah
Concept of God in Jainism Jainism believes that universe and all its substances or entities are eternal. It has no beginning or end with respect to time. Universe runs own its own accord by its own cosmic laws. All the substances change or modify their forms continuously. Nothing can be destroyed or created in the universe. There is no need of some one to create or manage the affairs of the universe. Hence...

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