Jaina Temple Architecture in India - Julia A.B. Hegewald

Posted: 22.09.2009
Updated on: 31.01.2013

English Books

Dr. Julia A.B. Hegewald

Jaina Temple Architecture in India

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Jaina Temple Architecture in India is the first comprehensive study of the development and uniqueness of Jaina sacred structures. The monograph analyses Jaina temples in all regions of the Indian subcontinent and outlines clear continuities by covering the period from the early centuries BCE till the present day. It identifies a distinct approach to the shaping of ritual space in Jaina temple edifices, which involves often complex spatial layouts on numerous vertical levels. These accommodate a multitude of venerated sacred objects and mirror specific Jaina ritual needs, patterns of worship as well as the translation of specific Jaina mythological and cosmological concepts into architecture. These aspects of multifacted spatial planning are shown to be equally common to Jaina temples in the diaspora outside India.

693 pages with 966 colour pictures and 366 groundplans and maps
size 24x30 cm
Hardcover
€ 128,--
ISBN 978 3 940939 09 8

Publisher:

G+H VERLAG BERLIN
KAISER-WILHELM-STR.5,
12247 BERLIN
GERMANY
TELEFON 030/768959-30 · FAX -55

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE xi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xi
TRANSLITERATION AND REFERENCE TO ILLUSTRATIONS
IN THE TEXT xii

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION: QUESTIONS OF JAINA IDENTITY AND STYLE 1
JAINA IDENTITY AND JAINA STYLE 2
JAINA ARCHITECTURE IN THE AVAILABLE LITERATURE 3
AIMS AND SOURCE MATERIAL 4

 

CHAPTER TWO

JAINISM: A BRIEF INTRODUCTION 7
THE LIVES AND TEACHINGS OF THE JINAS 7
SECTARIAN DIVISIONS AND SUBGROUPS IN JAINISM 17
THE FOURFOLD ASSEMBLY 21
JAINA TEMPLE WORSHIP 29
PILGRIMAGE AND JAINA FESTIVALS 38
JAINA COSMOLOGY 50

 

CHAPTER THREE

RELIGIOUS IMAGES AND SACRED OBJECTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE JAINA TEMPLE 63
JAINA SACRED IMAGES 63

1. Questions Concerning the Veneration of Images in Jainism 63
2. The Beginnings of Jaina Sculptural Art 65
3. Making and Inaugurating a Jaina Icon 66

SCULPTURAL REPRESENTATIONS OF THE TIRTHANKARAS 68
1. General Characteristics of Statues of the Jinas 68
2. The Iconography of the Twenty-Four Tfrthankaras 77

THE VENERATION OF DECEASED ASCETICS 82
1. The Dädä-Gurus 82
2. Sädhus, Sädhvis, Süris, Munis, Mätäs and Mahäräjas 83
3. The Ganadharas 87
4. Images of Gommatesvara 90

ASSOCIATED DIVINITIES OF THE TIRTHANKARAS 92
1. Vyantara-Devatäs and Other Jaina Divinities 94
Säsana-Devatäs (Yaksas and YaksTs) 94
Ksetra-Pälas and Dvära-Pälas 100
Dika-Pälas and Nägas 104
2. Female Divinities 107
The Vidyä-DevTs (Sruta-DevTs, Mahä-Vidyäs) 108
LaksmT and Jaina Mithuna Couples 110

ABSTRACT, EMBLEMATIC AND SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATIONS 113
1. Äyäga-Patas, Asta-Mangala and Sacred Dreams 113
Tablets of Homage 113
The Asta-Mangala 113
The Dreams of the Jina's Mother 115
2. Panca-Paramesthin and Siddha-Cakra (Nava-Devatä) 116
3. Sacred Symbols, Mantras, Yantras and Sacred Manuscripts 119
Swastika, Open Palm, Lotus, Cosmic Man and Wheel 119
Yantras '21
The Veneration of Sacred Scripture 124

CHAPTER FOUR

THE JAINA TEMPLE: ITS ARCHITECTURE, ASSOCIATED BUILDINGS AND RITUAL ACCESSORIES 127
FORMS OF THE JAINA TEMPLE 127
1. Cave Temples 131
2. Stupa Architecture 135
3. Sacred Pavilions 137
4. Mandapa-Line Temples 140
5. Caturmukha Temples 141
6. Centralised Eastern Type Temples 142
7. Courtyard-House or Havel! Temples 142
8. Hall Type Jaina Temples 144
9. Domestic House Temples 144
10. Klrtti-Stambha Temples 144
11. Mythological and Cosmological Temple Forms 145
Merus, Jambü-Dvlpa and Nandis'vara-DvTpa Temples 145
Samavasaranas 146
12. Private House Shrines 149

BUILDING AND CONSECRATING A JAINA TEMPLE 149
1. Patronage 150
2. Texts on Jaina Architecture 151
3. Building Materials and Decorations 153
4. Constructing, Inaugurating and Enlarging Jaina Temples 164

ASSOCIATED ELEMENTS OF THE CLASSICAL JAINA TEMPLE COMPLEX 167
1. Walls, Gateways and Thresholds 168
2. Libraries, Monasteries and Mathas 173
3. Natural Features: Gardens, Water, Trees, and Animal Shelters 177
4. Pillars, Altars and Temple Chariots 183

TEMPLE ACCESSORIES AND RITUAL IMPLEMENTS 201

 

CHAPTER FIVE

NORTH-WEST INDIA: COURTYARDS AND CONTINUITY 215
JAINA HISTORY AND ART IN NORTH-WESTERN INDIA 215

1. Sixth Century BCE to Tenth Century CE 216
2. Eleventh to Thirteenth Centuries CE 219
3. Thirteenth to Twenty-First Centuries CE 222

JAINA TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE IN NORTH-WESTERN INDIA 228
1. Temples with a Sequence of Aligned Mandapas 228
From Simple Pavilions to Multiple Mandapa Arrangements 229
From Shrines in Porches to Multi-Shrined Temples 241
Multi-Storeyed Jaina Temples: Chambers Above and Below the Ground 252
Additional Temple Buildings and the Creation of Jaina Temple Cities 259
2. Havell Temples and their Variants 279
3. Hall Temples and Multi-Storeyed Domestic House Temples 292
4. Cosmological and Mythological Temples 301
5. KTrtti-Stambhas and Unusual Temple Forms 308

 

CHAPTER SIX

NORTH AND EAST INDIA: AN EXERCISE IN CENTRALITY AND CIRCUMAMBULATION 317
JAINISM IN NORTH AND EAST INDIA: HISTORY AND ART 318

1. Sixth Century BCE to Fifth Century CE 319
2. Sixth to Thirteenth Centuries CE 322
3. Fourteenth to Twenty-First Centuries CE 325

JAINA TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE IN NORTH AND EASTERN INDIA 327
1. Temples with a Line of Mandapas 328

From Pädukäs and Simple Shrines to Temples with Multiple Halls 328
Multiple Image Chambers on Horizontal and Vertical Levels 337
Subsidiary Shrines and Temple Complexes 341
2. Courtyard Temples in North and Eastern India 346
Image Chambers and Mandapa Spaces in Havell Temples 346
HavelT Temples with Open and Enclosed Courtyard Areas 351
Multiple Shrines in Courtyard Temple Arrangements 356
3. Hall Type Temples 363
Multiplicity in Hall Type Temples 366
4. Centralised Eastern Type Temples 369
5. Combinations of Temple Types and Domestic House Temples 379
6. Cosmological and Mythical Temple Constructions 384
7. KIrtti-Stambhas, Unusual Temple Forms and Jaina Temple Cities 390


CHAPTER SEVEN

CENTRAL INDIA: COMPACTNESS AND COMPLEXITY 395
JAINA HISTORY AND ART IN CENTRAL INDIA 396

1. Sixth Century BCE to Ninth Century CE 396
2. Tenth to Fourteenth Centuries CE 400
3. Fifteenth to Twenty-First Centuries CE 403

JAINA TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE IN CENTRAL INDIA 404
1. Temples with a line of Mandapas 404
Pavilions 404
Jaina Temples with Halls and Porches 408
Elongated Image Chambers and Multiple Mürtis 417
Triple Sikharas and Triple-Shrined Temples 418
Double Temple Configurations 420
Multi-Shrined Temples 422
Caturmukha Temples and those Related to the Eastern Concentric Type 425
Shrines on Multiple Raised Floor Levels 428
The Accommodation of Image Chambers on Lower Levels 437
Subsidiary Shrines in the Jaina Temple Architecture of Central India 440
2. Courtyard House Temples 446
Shrines on Superimposed Levels 453
Roofed Havell Temples 456
3. Hall Temples, Hybrids and Domestic House Temples 461
4. Cosmological and Mythological Temples 467

 

CHAPTER EIGHT

SOUTH INDIA: CAVES AND TEMPLE COMPLEXES 475
JAINA HISTORY AND ART IN SOUTH INDIA 476

1. Fourth Century BCE to Early Centuries CE 476
2. Sixth to Eleventh Centuries CE 478
3. Eleventh to Twelfth Centuries CE 481
4. Thirteenth to Seventeenth Centuries CE 482
5. Eighteenth to Twenty-First Centuries CE 484

ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMENTS IN SOUTH INDIA 485
1. Jaina Cave Temples 485
2. Mandapa-Line Temples 491
Open-Air Images and Hypaethral Shrines 492
From Simple Shrines to Multiple-Hall Temple Constructions 496
The Conversion of Mandapa Side Entrances into Image Chambers 514
Double and Triple-Shrined Temples 520
Raised and Lower Sanctums 530
Subsidiary Shrines, Collections of Temples and Temple Cities 537
3. Temples Related to the Eastern Concentric Temple Type 543
4. Havell and Modified Courtyard-House Type II Temples 545
5. Hall Type Temples 551
6. Domestic House Temples 553
7. Cosmological and Mythological Temple Constructions 556

 

CHAPTER NINE

THE JAINA TEMPLE: A SPATIAL PARADIGM UNRAVELLED 561
THE SPATIAL ORGANISATION OF THE JAINA TEMPLE 563
THE JAINA RELIGIOUS RATIONAL 575
JAINA TEMPLES OUTSIDE INDIA 579
GLOSSARY 586
APPENDICES 594
I. THE TWENTY-FOUR TIRTHANKARAS OR JINAS 594
II. THE ASSOCIATED EMBLEMS OF THE FORDMAKERS 595
III. BIRTH AND ENLIGHTENMENT PLACES OF THE TIRTHANKARAS 596
IV. THE ASSOCIATED YAKSAS AND YAKSlS OF THE JINAS 597
V. THE EMBLEMS OF THE TWENTY-FOUR YAKSAS AND YAKSIS 598
VI. THE ELEVEN GANADHARAS 599
LIST OF FIGURES 600
LIST OF PLATES 608
BIBLIOGRAPHY 637
INDEX 662

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