The Jaina Doctrine of Karma And The Science Of Genetics ► [4.1] Bondage Of Karma ► ▪ Anubhāga (Intensity)

Posted: 01.05.2009

Anubhāga (Intensity)


How intense would be the results of karmas at the time of maturity is decided by the severity of our passions (desires) at the time of our activities. If our passions (desires) are slight then it would cause slight effect and if our passions are severe then it would cause severe results.


Now when the karmas get attached to the soul, they may be attached very loose or very tight. They are four types:

a) Loose (sprusta or śithila)
b) Tight (baddha or gādha)
c) Tighter (nidhata)
d) Tighest (nikacita)

    a) Loose (sprusta or śithila)
    In this case, karmas are attached to the soul like a loose knot that can easily be shed off.
    b) Tight (baddha or gādha)
    In this case, karmas are attached to the soul like a tight knot that can be shed off with some efforts.
    c) Tighter (nidhata)
    In this case, karmas are attached to the soul like a moderately knot that can only be shed off by very strong efforts like tapascaryā.
    d) Tighest (nikacita)
    In this case, karmas are attached to the soul very tightly that they cannot be shed off by any type of efforts except by bearing the results.


There are main four degrees of intensity corresponding to the four kaṣāyas

    1. Anantānubandhī kaṣāya
    2. Apratyākhyanī kaṣāya
    3. Pratyākhyanī kaṣāya
    4. Saṁjwalana kaṣāya.[39]

Duration and intensity of karma are determined by passions attracted by the self. The strong the passions the greater the intensity and duration of sinful deeds; similarly the intensity of fruition and duration of good karmas correspond, to the strength of passions in the reverse order.

In other words the duration of the actions of an evil being is longer, the strong effect of evil tendencies weakens the effect of the good ones. On the other hand, greater purity of character and conduct in a being lessens the duration and intensity of evil karmas and promotes the wholesome tendencies (karmaprakṛti). According to Gommatasāra intensity of fruition of auspicious type of sātāvedanīyakarma etc. is the highest due to pure feelings where as the intensity of the fruition of inauspicious types of asātāvedanīya etc. is the highest due to impure feelings.[40]


e) Bondage of karma - Iryāpathika and Samparāyika

The karma is related with the soul, as we have seen, on account of its passions and vibrations. We have also differentiated between the respective functions of the passions and vibrations. There are states of the soul where the passions are totally calmed down or destroyed. But the vibrations or activity of the body, sense organs of speech and the mind still remain and consequently the influx and bondage of karma as well. This bondage however does not last for more than an instant. The influx in this case is technically known as non effecting (iryāpathika), the corresponding bondage also being known by the term iryāpathika bandha (non-effecting bondage).[41] The influx and bondage due to activity accompanied with passions are both known as affecting (saṁparāyika), which is known as saṁparāyika bandh. The influx and bondage, as a matter of necessity, require some energy on the part of the soul for their origination. This energy is known as Vīrya. The activity (yoga) is nothing but an imperfect expression of this energy.[42]




Doctoral Thesis, JVBU

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