Posted: 19.05.2010
By Dr. Shugan Chand Jain
1.0 Social Consciousness Social consciousness is consciousness shared within a society. It can also be defined as social awareness; to be aware of the problems that different societies and communities face on a day-to-day basis; to be conscious of the difficulties and hardships of society. Some people define social consciousness as a society's consciousness of itself. Others argue against this definition,...
Posted: 15.05.2010
By Nicole Dutram
Introduction "Clever people cure a blemish, even if it appears in their own bodies" -Tishasti Shakala Purusa Caritra Pt. 2, pg. 3 With the following paper I hope to explore some of the cultural separations that I have witnessed between the East and the West. Specifically through my experiences in India with the International Summer School for Jain Studies for 2 months in 2008 and again in 2009, and my...
Posted: 10.05.2010
By Dr. Shugan Chand Jain
Who is considered unregistered? There can be many considerations for being called as unregistered as registration can be with the civil authorities or with a religious organization (in case of such powers are bestowed on them by the state). There can be many reasons for not registering a child such as: Ignorance or difficulty experienced by the parents in registering. Illegal immigrants. Abandoned by mother for...
Posted: 01.05.2010
By Dr. Shugan Chand Jain
Definitions Humanity: The quality of being human; the peculiar nature of man, by which he is distinguished from other beings, the quality of being humane; the kind feeling, dispositions, and sympathies of man; a disposition to relieve persons or animals in distress; and to treat all creatures with kindness and tenderness. Jainism talks of all living beings to include not only human beings but subhuman (animal),...
Posted: 25.04.2010
By Sean Bevis
“A Philosophical and Sociological analysis of the role of ‘charity’ in Jainism, with specific reference to the nature of dāna and aparigraha in both Jain and non-Jain environments.” This essay aims to analyse the role that ‘charity’ plays in the Jain religion both in terms of its importance in its philosophical systems, and in terms of the practical role it plays for both Jain and non-Jain society...
Posted: 19.04.2010
By Anop R. Vora
Introduction Jainism has identified the control of Kashāyās (emotions of anger, arrogance, deception, and greed), Nokashāyās (other related passions), and base impulses as the main determinant of one’s spiritual progress. In fact, it regards the erasing of these intertwined emotions all the way down to the micro-level from one’s character as essential for achieving one’s highest potential - i.e.,...
Posted: 18.04.2010
By Dr. Sulekh Chand Jain, Dr. Tansukh J. Salgia
Note: This is not a typical abstract article to talk and preach about the philosophy and the glory of Jainism, which we all know to a great extent. This article is based on our thinking and also dialogues with some concerned eminent persons. Purpose of this paper is to create an awareness and to make an appeal for applied and Practical Jainism rather than describing the traditional Jainism that consists of...
Posted: 14.04.2010
By Dr. Shugan Chand Jain
Healing is generally understood as the act or process of curing or of restoring the health. Assessed physically, healing is the process by which the cells in the body regenerate and repair to reduce the size of a damaged or narcotic area. Healing incorporates both the removal of necrotic tissue (demolition), and the replacement of this tissue. For centuries, people of faith have offered prayers for the sick ,...
Posted: 22.07.2009
By Prof. Dr. D.N. Bhargava
1.0 Introduction Religion is a transcendental spiritual experience which is permanent, trans-subjective, blissful, intuitive, supersensuous, infinite, incommunicable and ineffable. It is the non-conceptual state of existence wherein all differentiations disappear. The Jaina view of religion lays stress on realizing the transcendental nature of self, which the individual feels as his own. It should be borne in...
Posted: 21.07.2009
By Dr. Anekant Kumar Jain
Paṅcāthikāya (Paṅcāstikāya) is an ancient and important text of Jain’s which is composed in old classical Indian language named ‘Prākṛta’ and specifically in ‘Śaurseni Prākṛta’ (an important part of the Prākṛta language). This work is composed by the famous Jainācārya Kunda Kunda in 1st century A.D. The Paṅcāstikāya, as it is specified by its brief title, is one of the...
Posted: 09.07.2009
By Dr. Shugan Chand Jain
The oldest holy texts of Jains are called canons or āgama consisting of twelve limbs ( Dvādaśāngas ) and considered as direct compilations of Mahāvira’s sermons by his chief disciples known as gaṇadharas . Ācārāṅga, or sometimes called as Sāmāyika or Āyāro in Prakṛta, is the first of these Dvādaśāngas . Beginning with the inquisitiveness about the soul, this is the basic holy text of...
Posted: 29.06.2009
By Dr. Veer Sagar Jain
1.0 Introduction Tattvārtha Sūtra is a very important text of Jaina religion. It has covered all the aspects of Jaina philosophy and is the source to other literary works as it has seeds of all the topics. Jainism is divided into many sects and sub-sects since ancient days, but all the sects accept Tattvārtha Sūtra faithfully. None have doubted its authenticity. Like Namokāra mantra, Tattvārtha Sūtra is...
Posted: 12.06.2009
By Manjusha Sethi
The whole of the Jaina exegetical literature is comprised in the dvadasangi. The Ganadharas of tirthankara Mahavira who heard his divine sound, passed on this knowledge to their disciples. The srutjnana of Lord Mahavira passed on in this fashion for almost 683 years. Due the diminishing power of the memory and lack of concentration this oral tradition could not continue. This led to the loss of the knowledge...
Posted: 04.06.2009
By Chuck Sapienza
Introduction By outsiders and insiders alike, Jainism is considered one of India’s atheistic religions. Phrases such as “The Jains are explicitly atheistic,” are commonplace. Anyone spending time with Jains and discussing their religion with them is sure to come across two things: Claims of atheism, but also many references to God. The claim to atheism and the references to God come from laypersons,...
Posted: 22.05.2009
By Dr. Meenal Katarnikar
Concepts Of Freedom, Law and Justice in Jainism Introduction: In order to understand the notions of law and justice in any society, it is very essential to understand the theoretical framework of freedom as has been established in or granted by that society. And the reason is very simple. The notions of law and justice make sense only in and for the society of free human beings. At the face value, the title of...
Posted: 01.05.2009
By Dr. Meenal Katarnikar
Introduction: The four cardinal principles of Jain way of life are: Ahiṅsā or non violence in conduct Aparigraha or Non-possession in life and society Anekānta or multiplicity of view points in thoughts Syādvāda or Conditional dialectic in speech. Oxford American Desk dictionary defines Tolerance as: 1. Willingness or ability to tolerate 2. Forbearance 3. Capacity to tolerate 4. Allowable variation in any...
Posted: 21.04.2009
By Dr. Meenal Katarnikar
Introduction The Jain community is known as the ‘ Catūrvidha Saṅgha ’, i.e. the fourfold community. But this ‘community’ denotes a unique concept. It is neither merely a social group nor association, nor is it a multitude of sages. In the Jaina context, community or samgha consists of monks, nuns, and laymale and female followers. Categorically, the followers are divided into two, viz. the ascetics...
Posted: 17.04.2009
By Prof. Dr. Kalpana Jain
Like the doctrines of non-violence ( Ahińsā ), Multiplicity of viewpoints ( Anekāntavāda ); doctrine of non-possession is another significant and well doctrine of Jain philosophy. Doctrine of Non-possession is such by practicing it, one is said to be practicing the entire code Jain ethics and vows. Doctrine of Non-possession or aparigraha includes: Considering all desires or expectations, be they internal...
Posted: 11.04.2009
By Dr. Prakash C. Jain
1.0 Introduction Although much research has been done on the literary, religious and philosophical aspects of Jainism, sociological/anthropological research of the Jaina community as well as Jainism continues to remain in incipiency. This paper argues for the Sociology of the Jaina Community by suggesting a few areas of research that deserve priority. These areas are demographic structure, social structure,...
Posted: 09.04.2009
By Dr. K. Guha Majumdar
Introduction Jainism is a non-vedic, śramanic religion, which denies the existence of a creator God and instead, accepts the authority of its own āgamas . The ideas and practices expounded by the Tīrthaṅkaras were continuously preached and developed by the ascetics of the Jaina tradition; and asceticism and renunciation have been the hallmark of the Jaina tradition. All the Tīrthaṅkaras were believed to...
Posted: 26.03.2009
By Dr. N.P. Jain
1.1 Introduction Jain religion has, over many centuries, survived the vicissities of history and the competing space claimed by other faiths in multi-religious and multi-cultural India. It may have today a limited following of around 10 million people only, but it has made an abiding impact on India’s cultural heritage with its central focus on the practice of non-violence as life ethics. Jain religion has...
Posted: 25.03.2009
By Dr. N.P. Jain
1.1 The World Around Us. Earth is a bright jewel pulsating with life in the enormously vast cosmos. It is the only live planet endowed with a fascinating variety of living species along with atmosphere, oceans and lakes, rivers, water falls and wind systems, mountains and clouds, soils, vegetation and forests. On this planet human destiny is intertwined with other living beings and forces of nature in a kind of...
Posted: 13.03.2009
By D.R. Mehta
1.0 Introduction Ours is the age of reason. Asymmetrically ours is also the age of violence. Never before in the human history there was so much of violence. Relationships at individual, social, national and international levels are often afflicted by violence, in degrees large or small. In such situation generally the reactive remedy adopted is violence without realizing that violence begets violence, which in...
Posted: 03.03.2009
By Dr. Shikhar Chand Jain
Most of us are always busy in our daily life such as business, service or whatever profession a person has adopted as the means of livelihood. We are so much absorbed in worldly life that our real cause of life is marred, neglected such as how to concentrate on spiritual development leading to good health and good behaviour, being a law abiding citizen and a good neighbour, a honest and cooperative person with...
Posted: 05.02.2009
By Dr. Priyadarshana Jain
Study Of Uttarādhyayana Sūtra Introduction The Uttarādhyayana Sūtra occupies an important place in Jaina canonical literature; it is a representative work of Śramaṇika current of thought. It is important for its spiritual fervor, ethical notes, historical references, interesting stories, striking metaphors, inspiring dialogues, besides rituals and code of conduct of an aspirant treading on the path of...
Posted: 04.02.2009
By Dr. Mahavir Raj Gelra
Pudgala - Matter There are many aspects of existence, which Jain philosophers have described and explained ahead of the researches of modern science. Particularly, the intangible world of sūk ṣ ma (micro) has found a strong alibi in the form of modern physics. Yet, science has not been able to surmount various frontiers, which were conquered by the ancient Jain ascetics. Jain knowledge throws several such...
Posted: 30.01.2009
By Dr. Priyadarshana Jain
Introduction India is a spiritual land. It has been a birthplace for innumerable spiritual, philosophical and religions traditions since time immemorial. Unlike in the west, the eastern philosophical schools developed simultaneously, be it Brahmaṇika or Śramaṇika. But in both traditions and in almost every Indian School of Philosophical thought, the terms Yoga and dhyāna find an important place. According...
Posted: 22.01.2009
By Dr. Mahavir Raj Gelra
One Sensed J īvās (Souls) To uphold the moral, ethical, mental and physical values of civilized society, the Jain ethical values have paid the highest regards to all forms of life. According to Jain doctrine, souls exist not only in human beings and animals, but also in lumps of earth, in drops of water, in the flame of fire, in the wind and in the vegetation. It maintains that these five kinds of immobile...
Posted: 21.01.2009
By Dr. Shugan Chand Jain
Background Nature of an entity is defined as its religion by Jain ācāryas . Further the Jain view of reality as with origination-destruction and permanence implies that the universe with its multiple problems and their resolutions, new developments, was always there and continues to be there. Only their form (problems and developments) changes but the basic doctrine holds true. A quick glimpse will show that...
Posted: 20.01.2009
By Prof. Dr. Sohan Raj Tater
Idealism And Realism In Western And Indian Philosophies Over the centuries the philosophical attitude in the west has never been constant but undulated between Idealism and Realism. The difference between these two appears to be irreconcilable, being more or less bound up with the innate difference of predispositions and tendencies varying from person to person. The result is an uncompromising antagonism. The...
Posted: 15.01.2009
By Dr. Shugan Chand Jain
1.0 Introduction The word diet brings to our mind thoughts of austerity, restriction and deprivation to lose weight and look better. However in Jainism, the word diet refers more to the harmonious relationship between the food we take concerning our health (both physical and mental), the environment we live in and enhancement of our abilities to perform and make our existence happy and blissful in this and...
Posted: 09.01.2009
By Dr. Shugan Chand Jain
1.0 Preamble Rahe bhāvanā esī merī sarala satya vyavahāra karūṅ Bane jahā taka esa jīvana meṅ auro kā upakāra karūṅ Maitrī bhāva jagata meṅ merā saba jīvo se nitya rahe Dīna dukhī jīvo para mere ura se Karūṇā stotra bahe - extracted from stanzas 4 and 5 of Meri Bhāvanā by Pt. Jugal Kishore. May my desire be ever for dealings fair and straight; May my heart only delight in doing...
Posted: 06.01.2009
By Dr. Priyadarshana Jain
Introduction The great ancient saints and seers in India have propounded three great traditions, Jainism, Buddhism, and Hinduism, represented in sacred canons called Āgamas, Piṭṭakas and Vedas respectively. The seeds of the great tradition of Jaina religion and culture are the fruits of insights, experiences and revelations of the omniscient (Kevalis) i.e. tīrthaṅkaras or fordmaker. The Āgamas or...
Posted: 01.01.2009
By Acharya Vidhyanand
Preface Sallekhanā is a very important topic in Jaina philosophy. It is very important to understand this issue. It is an important path to positively change our life. It is a very minute topic and hence one has to be cautious about it. But presently many of them fail to understand it properly and talk ill of it. Scriptures mention clearly, “ Niṣpratīkāre ”; means one has work for daily living, live...
Posted: 31.12.2008
By Justice N.K. Jain
Sallekhanā, saṅyāsa, samādhi, nirupādhi and vīriyamaraṇa are all synonyms of Sallekhanā . According to religious texts, it is an eternal law that an entity, which is born, has to die also. One can die prematurely also due to the activation of inauspicious karmas ( pāpa karma ). One can earn auspicious or meritorious karmas by practicing religious austerities intelligently and die peacefully when one...
Posted: 29.12.2008
By Dr. D. S. Baya
1.0 Introduction The literature in all languages, the scriptures of all religions and preachers of all faiths have vexed themselves eloquent to emphasize the inevitability of death but, at the same time they have also said that the death is one of the most fearsome, painful, sorrowful, miserable and frightening happening. The Uttarādhyayanasutra says that birth, death, decay and disease are sorrows, the...
Posted: 27.12.2008
By Prof. Dr. D.N. Bhargava
Introduction The body is the means and not the end, it is a means to attain liberation. One has to leave the body at the end. The Jainas, therefore, prescribe forsaking food (and sometimes even water) and leave the body with equanimity under certain circumstances. This is known as Sallekhanā or Santhārā . This is supposed to end or shorten the mundane existence of the soul in the whirlpool of transmigration...
Posted: 17.12.2008
By Dr. Shugan Chand Jain
1.0 Background Every religion has its own code of conduct and its meditation practice of self / soul purification to attain Bliss. Buddhists call their meditation practice as Viśśudhi Mārga ; Sāṅkhya calls it Yoga Darśana (Maharṣi Patanajali called this path as Yoga). Jains call it Mokṣa Mārga or Mukti Mārga . Jain literature does not use the term Yoga in the sense as used by Patanjali. On the...
Posted: 15.12.2008
By Dr. Sushma Singhvi
As a means of self-realization, meditation holds the supreme position. In fact, all ethical discipline aims at perfect state of meditation. The conception of state of meditation differs from one system to another, but they all agree regarding the importance of meditation. Dhyāna is one of the forms of internal penance is defined in the Tattvārtha sutra as the ‘concentration of thought on a single object for...
Posted: 11.12.2008
By Prof. Dr. D.N. Bhargava
1.0 Jainism is an Ascetic Religion. The moral code of Jainism preaches asceticism to its extreme. The idea is that if spirit is something beyond senses, then all sensual pleasures must be only an obstacle in the realization of the soul. They, therefore, must be renounced. Once this principle is accepted, no concession is to be made in the name of practicability. Of course, this ideal cannot be achieved normally...
Posted: 04.12.2008
By Dr. Anekant Kumar Jain
1. Introduction This universe of ours is complex and it comprises of infinite realities. It is impossible for human intellect to have the simultaneous view of the totality of the infinity and infinitum, with all its subjective and objective characteristics, and with all its aspects of dialectical opposites, such as one and many, similar and dissimilar, eternal and ephemeral, determinate and indeterminate, prior...
Posted: 03.12.2008
By Prof. Dr. Kamal Chand Sogani
1.0 Ahiṅsā as the Foundation of Jaina Ethics Ethical discipline constitutes an important aspect of Jainism. The foundation of the ethical discipline is the doctrine of Ahiṅsā. The laying down of the commandment not to kill and not to damage is one of the greatest events in the spiritual history of mankind. This is for the first time clearly expressed in Jainism. 1.1 Classification of Living Being from...
Posted: 27.11.2008
By Prof. Dr. D.N. Bhargava
Introduction The Jain life style is respected by the vows, which a householder or a monk adopts. However, beyond this, there are certain others characteristics of Jain life style. While we are dealing with the formal vows for the householders and the monks in separate lessons, in this lesson we propose to deal with such aspects of Jain life style, which do not generally fall within the domain of vows. For this...
Posted: 19.11.2008
By Dr. Meenal Katarnikar
Introduction The ethical system contains Beliefs about the nature of man, Beliefs about ideals, about what is good or desirable or worthy of pursuit for its own sake, Rules laying down what ought to be done and what ought not to be done, and Motives that incline us to choose the right or wrong course. The issues arising about what is good, desirable or worthy of pursuit, the standard of goodness and so, arising...
Posted: 18.11.2008
By Dr. D. K. Bobra
1.0 Introduction Ethics is a branch of philosophy. It is the science of conduct that evaluates morality and moral code of conduct logically. Although initially they were practiced for spiritual development and salvation; this concept became in the modern times as an applied field of ethics and when applied in the field of medical practice it became known as bio-ethics. Bioethics is the ethics for the...
Posted: 12.11.2008
By Prof. Dr. Kamal Chand Sogani
1.0 Introduction Jainism is one of the oldest living religions of the world. It represents the continuation of indigenous Śramaṇic culture that is at least as old as the Vedas themselves, so far as the literary evidence goes, though the archaeological evidence takes Śramaṇism far back to Harappan civilization, which is regarded as non-Vedic in origin and outlook. The Jaina faith has, no doubt, influenced...
Posted: 04.11.2008
By Prof. Dr. Kamal Chand Sogani
The significant fact about knowledge is its communicability. When knowledge is for one’s own self, the question of communicability can be displayed with; but when it is for the other, the question needs serious consideration. Communicability is accomplished through properly worded propositions. Thus knowledge to be communicable is to be reduced to propositions. This goes without saying that formulation of...
Posted: 29.10.2008
By Prof. Dr. Kamal Chand Sogani
It is incontrovertible that metaphysics deals with the problem of reality. Philosophers have endeavoured to expound the world of phenomena in a consistent manner. For Jaina thinkers, reality is constituted of apparent contradiction. So its one-dimensional exposition is not possible. It is an inalienable complex of permanence and change, existence and non-existence, oneness and manyness, universality and...
Posted: 28.10.2008
 
Dr. Kusum Jain Anekānta - Syat - Saptabhangi The very foundation of the Jaina system of philosophy is the conception of reality, which is manifold, nay infinite fold, hence highly complex and pluralistic in character. It is why the Jaina system is so called the philosophy of Anekāntavāda, the term being made up of three words aneka (many), anta (aspects or attributes) and vāda (theory). It has been...
Posted: 23.10.2008
By Dr. Shugan Chand Jain
1.0 Reality / Sat / Existent Umā Swāmi defines reality through its sutras Sad dravya lakṣaṇam i.e. substance is the indicator of real. TS 5/29 Utpādavyayadhrauvyayukttaṅ sat’ i.e. nature of real is origination, destruction and permanence TS 5/32 Gūṇaparyāybad dravya i.e. substance is with mode and attributes. TS 5/33 But he did not elaborate about the nature of the relationship existing between...

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