Posted: 06.07.2005
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Bibliography For the specialists, we mention in abbreviated form the sources used or mentioned by us. Avashyaka I (old formula): Refer to Dasavaikalika IV. -- Avashyaka I-VI (Avashyaka I etc.): Jaina Agama Series No.15.1977; also Haribhadra's Tika, 1916-17 and LEUMANN 1934 (fn.2 supra). -- Avashyaka V (oldest known Jaina work): Refer to Acaranga I 8. -- Avashyaka VI (early text): Upasakadasah. Shvetambaras and...
Posted: 05.07.2005
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Postscript In conclusion, a reference to the relationship of Jainism to general Indian culture helps to view the situation in a still wider perspective. Even the "practical" or "pragmatic" literature of Jainism discussed or alluded to in our paper (ethics, monastic discipline, ritual, primitive karman doctrine) is of a scope which specialists themselves might easily underestimate. This is not to mention the...
Posted: 04.07.2005
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Summary The reference to ACHARYA TULSI may be broadened through a discussion of the question as to whether or not the ahimsa is a Jaina message to the rest of the world. An absolutely positive answer to this question is difficult under the circumstances. On the one hand, as we know, the Jaina ahimsa contains a great deal concerning "violence" and "non-violence" which is unfamiliar to the non-Jaina world. The...
Posted: 03.07.2005
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Salvation The emphasis on the Avashyaka-Sutra up to this point has veiled the metaphysical framework of the various issues. The question is raised as to what this all amounts to. Even the minutest instruction is – theoretically at least – linked with an overriding philosophy. Jainism is a religion of salvation ("Erlösungsreligion"). Every look at the relevant Indological publications shows that...
Posted: 02.07.2005
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Avashyaka VI, Pratyakhyana The title "Pratyakhyana" (renunciation) is based on the verb pratyakhyami ("I renounce") which is used inter alia in connection with the Five Vows. As we know, these basic rules are not represented as precepts but as vows to renounce certain misdeeds. They could just as well be represented as objects of repentance (this is in fact the case in the fifth position of the long chain in...
Posted: 01.07.2005
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Avashyaka V, Kayotsarga The kayotsarga is a difficult exercise. The monk meditates in a motionless position, the standing position being in the texts obviously preferred to the seated position. In Jaina art, the Tirthankaras are shown standing or seated (illustrations 5-8), and these two types can be linked with the kayotsarga (the standing Tirthankaras at least are unequivocal representations of this pose). In...
Posted: 30.06.2005
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Avashyaka IV, Pratikramana The fourth Avashyaka is called "repentance" and consists mainly of lists of offences, each list bracketed together by the expression of repentance. Repentance, pratikramana, is not the only subject of the Avashyaka-Sutra, but, as mentioned already, it occupies in it an important position. First of all we quote a passage which still reflects the idiom of the oldest known Jaina work: I...
Posted: 29.06.2005
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Avashyaka III, Vandana "Vandana" stands for salutation. The third Avashyaka may be described as a ritual of repentance combined with a " ritual of approach ". However difficult the text may be, it gives a good impression of early ritualism. At the end of the day the junior monk (student) approaches the senior (teacher) and subsequently takes his leave. The action is described, not as coming and going in the...
Posted: 28.06.2005
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Avashyaka II, Caturvimshatistava The second Avashyaka is a hymn (stava) to the twenty-four (caturvimshati) Tirthankaras and therefore called "Caturvimshatistava". The Tirthankaras ("they who created the tirtha or path toward release from worldly existence") or Jinas ("the victors") are the founders of the Jaina religion. Except for the last two, however, they are not historical figures but those of a legendary...
Posted: 27.06.2005
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Avashyaka I, Samayika The first Avashyaka is a moral declaration. It is based on an old formula of the Jaina tradition which has been slightly extended so as to form a self-contained element of the sixfold Avashyaka sequence. The Samayika introduces the subject of repentance which is prominent in the Avashyaka-Sutra (I, III-V). The related subjects of confession -- and atonement -- are not mentioned in the...
Posted: 26.06.2005
By Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
Introduction: Until recently, Jainism was known outside India only in academic circles. Nowadays, however, closer contacts between India and other countries -- and the immediate interest aroused by a religion which stands for "non-violence" -- have produced a change. These facts prompt us to present a sort of close up view of Jaina ethics as will be seen in the sequel.

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