Madhya Loka

Published: 13.12.2012
Updated: 25.04.2017
Alias(es)
Madhya Lok, Madhya-Loka, Madhyalok
The middle world

Jain Concept Of Geography

Madhya Loka, at the centre of the universe consists of 900 yojans above and 900 yojans below earth surface. It is inhabited by:

  1. Jyotishka devas (luminous gods) - 790 to 900 yojans above earth
  2. Human, Tiryanch (Animals, birds, plants) - on the surface
  3. Vyantar devas (Intermediary gods) - 100 yojan below the ground level

Madhyaloka consists of many continent-islands surrounded by oceans, first eight whose names are:

Continent/ Island
Ocean
Jambūdvīpa Lavanoda (Salt - ocean)
Ghatki Khand Kaloda (Black sea)
Puskarvardvīpa Puskaroda (Lotus Ocean)
Varunvardvīpa Varunoda (Varun Ocean)
Kshirvardvīpa Kshiroda (Ocean of milk)
Ghrutvardvīpa Ghrutoda (Ghee ocean)
Ikshuvardvīpa Iksuvaroda (Ocean of Sugarcane Juice)
Nandishwardvīpa Nandishwaroda

Mount Meru is at the centre of the world surrounded by Jambūdvīpa, in form of a circle forming a diameter of 100,000 yojans. There are two sets of sun, moon and stars revolving around Mount Meru; while one set works, the other set rests behind the Mount Meru.

Jambūdvīpa continent has 6 mighty mountains, dividing the continent into 7 zones (Kshetra).

The names of these zones are:

  1. Bharat Kshetra
  2. Mahavideh Kshetra
  3. Airavat Kshetra
  4. Ramyak
  5. Hairanyvat Kshetra
  6. Haimava Kshetra
  7. Hari Kshetra

The three zones i.e. Bharat Kshetra, Mahavideh Kshetra and Airavat Kshetra are also known as Karma bhoomi because practice of austerities and liberation is possible and the Tirthankaras preach the Jain doctrine. The other four zones, Ramyak, Hairanyvat Kshetra, Haimava Kshetra and Hari Kshetra are known as akarmabhoomi or bhogbhumi as humans live a sinless life of pleasure and no religion or liberation is possible.

References

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Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Bhogbhumi
  2. Devas
  3. Ghee
  4. Jambūdvīpa
  5. Karma
  6. Kshetra
  7. Loka
  8. Mahavideh
  9. Meru
  10. Mount Meru
  11. Tirthankaras
  12. Vyantar
  13. Yojan
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