Revealing the Scientific Nature of the Jain Concept 'Sammūrcchima' (Agglutination)

Published: 15.11.2012
Updated: 21.07.2015

National Symposium on Jain Philosophy, Science And Scriptures


Revealing the Scientific Nature of the Jain Concept 'Sammūrcchima' (Agglutination)

A Paper presented in a National Symposium on Jain Philosophy, Science and Scriptures, between 22nd-24th October 2012 at Jasol, Rajasthan

I. References have been taken from the Website Wikipedia - Subtexts: -

  1. Asexual reproduction
  2. Hermaphrodite
  3. Cloning

II. References also been taken from Prāṇiśāstra (part I and II) written by Dr. V.M.Āpte, published by Mahārāṣṭra State Sāhitya and Saṁskṛti Mandal.


0. Introduction

Non-violence (ahiṁsā) is the basic principle of Jain philosophy and ethics. Jain philosophy has observed innumerable species of living beings in this universe. The classification and description of all the living creatures has been mentioned in the ancient Prakrit Scriptures and later Sanskrit texts of Jains. Jain philosophy describes the spread of living species and the nature of all kinds of living beings in universe, so as to enhance the sensitivity towards living beings. This knowledge helps to observe non-violence and avoid violence.


i. Classification of Living Organisms in Jainism

a. Classification based on liberation:

  • Emancipated beings (siddha-jīvas)
  • Worldly beings (saṁsārī-jīvas)

b. Classification based on movement:

  • Immobile beings (sthāvaras)
  • Mobile beings (trasas)

c. Classification based on mind:

  • Rational beings (saṁjñī)
  • Non-rational beings (asaṁjñī)

d. Classification based on sense-organs:

  • From one-sensed beings to five-sensed beings.

e. Classification based on destinity (gati):

  • The beings having hellish, sub-human, human and celestial destinity.

f. Classification based on bodily features:

  • The beings having gross (audārika), protean (vaikriya), conveyance (āhāraka), fiery (taijasa) and kārmic (kārmaṇa) bodies.

g. Classification based on sex:

  • The infernals and living beings born by agglutination are necessarily hermaphrodites,
  • The gods are either females or males.
  • Living beings in human and animal species could be male, female or hermaphrodite.

h. Classification based on the places of birth (yoni):

There are 84 lakhs varieties of places, where life could exist i.e. where a living being could take birth. These birth-places could broadly be categorized into nine types: -

  • Occupied by living things only
  • Cold
  • Covered
  • Occupied by non-living things only
  • Hot
  • Uncovered
  • Occupied by living and non-living things
  • Both hot and cold in part
  • Both covered and uncovered in part

j. Classification based on the types of birth:

  • Viviparous and oviparous animals and vertebrates without placenta are born in the womb.
  • Infernal beings and gods are born by descent.
  • All other beings are born by agglutination. [1]

Just like a kaleidoscope visualizes the images of glasses in different views merely by changing the angle, likewise Jain philosophy also classifies living species into various types. The kaleidoscopic visualization of different livings presented in species, really inspires a scholar of Jainology for further search.


ii. Rationale for the choice of the subject

Special interest arose while reading the description of the birth and birth­places of living species mentioned in Jain texts. I thought of correlating the similarity between 'birth by agglutination' and 'agglutinated organisms' with modern Zoological and Botanical studies. It was noticed that the reproduction of plants and animals mentioned in today's scientific study by asexual reproduction, cloning, tissue culture etc. were almost similar to the process of reproduction of various types of agglutinated micro-organisms explained in Jain texts.

For correlating the Jain views with the modern Zoological and Botanical sciences, Wikipedia website and the book 'प्राणिसृष्टी (भाग १, २)' of Dr. V.M. Apte helped us a lot. With the above thought process, the title of this paper was decided which is - Revealing the Scientific Nature of the Jain Concept 'Sammūrcchima' (Agglutination).


1. Types of birth according to Jain philosophy

This research paper primarily focuses on the places of birth and specifically on the birth of living beings. Hence we will discuss in detail about birth. Tattvārthasūtra mentions: -

सम्मूर्च्छनगर्भोपपाता जन्म। [2]

Means there are three types of birth: -

  1. by womb
  2. by descent
  3. by agglutination (of material particles)


i. Birth by womb

This process of birth is related to sexual relationship. The physical body (or foetus) is formed in the mother's womb when a sperm (from semen) meets the ovum. There are namely three subtypes of birth by womb:

  • viviparous animals (jarāyuja)
  • oviparous animals (aṇḍaja)
  • vertebrates without placenta (potaja)

ii. Birth by descent

Birth by descent is without parents and with a fully developed body.


iii. Birth by agglutination

This is a form of asexual reproduction where sperms and ovum do not meet. In this type, the soul absorbs the material particles that lie at the spot of its birth and uses the power of its karma to convert them into an agglutinated body. [3]

Out of these, birth by womb is well-known. Birth by descent is characteristic of infernal beings and gods. Birth by agglutination is a peculiar concept in Jain philosophy. Nearly 70% of the total beings are born by agglutination. Still we do not find detailed description of the process of agglutination in these texts.


2. Concept of 'agglutinated beings', according to Jain philosophy


i. How 'birth by agglutination' differs from 'birth by womb'?

Four instincts of each living beings are enumerated in Jainism. 'Sex' is one of them. This instinct is expressed in each living being through reproduction. Each living being reproduces because it wants to exist. Reproduction is related to sexual relationship where there is birth by womb. It has been noticed that in plant and animal kingdom birth can occur even without male and female mating. Jain philosophy describes this process as agglutination.


ii. Jain concept of sammūrcchima as described in the commentaries

Jain philosophy believes in karma theory. According to this, the future birth of living being is decided by the karma of that particular being. The one who is destined to be born as agglutinated being takes birth at its appropriate place. During this the living being is accompanied by its own protean and karmic body. The soul along with its protean and karmic body absorbs the material particles that lie at the place of its birth. After absorbing the desired material particles, the soul takes the form of the particular being. This type of birth is 'birth by agglutination'.

Commentary on Tattvarthasutra says:

अत्र सम्मूर्च्छामात्रं सम्मूर्च्छनम्, यस्मिन् स्थाने स उत्पत्स्यते जन्तुस्तत्रत्यपुद्गलानुपसृज्य शरीरीकुर्वन् सम्मूर्च्छनं जन्म लभते, तदेव हि तादृक् सम्मूर्च्छनं जन्मोच्यते। [4]


iii. Detailed description of agglutinated beings according to Jain philosophy

There are three types of birth: -

  1. birth by agglutination,
  2. birth by womb and
  3. birth by descent.

a. Birth by agglutination: All one to four-sensed beings, five-sensed animals born by asexual reproduction and human beings born by asexual reproduction (having no mind) are the examples of this kind of birth.

b. Birth by womb: Livings beings born by sexual reproduction viz., five-sensed animals and humans (with mind).

c. Birth by descent: Infernal beings and divine beings. [5]

Agglutinated human beings are without power of thought - without physical mind or having no mind). [6] Agglutinated beings range from one to five-sensed beings. [7] According to the realm of birth, agglutinated beings exist only in human and subhuman species. [8] There are 84 lakh birth-places, out of which agglutinated beings take birth in 58 lakh places and even more. Apart from these birth-places, some agglutinated beings also take birth in four lakh five-sensed subhuman birth­places and fourteen lakh human birth places. [9] Here lies the importance of the detailed thinking of these beings. The 84 lakh birth-places are broadly categorized into nine varieties like sacitta, acitta, miśra etc. Agglutinated beings can take birth in any of these nine places. [10] Agglutinated beings have gross, fiery and karmic bodies. [11] All agglutinated beings are necessarily hermaphrodite. [12] Maximum and minimum life spans of all agglutinated beings are noted down in different manner. But agglutinated humans have life less than one antarmūhurta (up to 48 minutes). [13]

One-sensed to five-sensed subhuman agglutinated beings are of two types: -

  1. matured (paryāpta)
  2. immature (aparyāpta),

whereas all agglutinated humans are necessarily immature. [14]

They possess entirely asymmetrical body configuration (huṇḍaka saṁhanana) [15] and the weakest bone-joints (sevārta saṁhanana). [16]

Though Jain philosophy has categorized agglutinated beings in multiple ways, yet two more varieties can be added viz.

  1. naturally agglutinated and
  2. artificially agglutinated

3. What is common between agglutinated birth and asexual reproduction

Commentators have not clearly explained the concept of agglutinated birth described in Jain scriptures. We fail to understand that: -

  1. Does asexual reproduction actually mean birth without physical mating?
  2. Birth without ovum or egg laid by female?
  3. And birth without any of the remnants of that particular being?

But according to Jain philosophy one thing is crystal clear that asexual reproduction does not involve individual female, male and their sexual mating. Also we do not except any of the type of sexual reproduction viz. viviparous, oviparous birth and birth by womb.

Then question arises that in asexual reproduction don't we actually need female, male, ovum or sperm for life to exist? But where there is no particular sexual material, can birth occur? For explanation of all these queries the important keyword is 'birth-place'. We expect to have some remnants of the particular class of plant or animal to exist in that birth-place. This kind of birth where actual physical mating does not take place is considered as, 'asexual reproduction' in the present paper. Botanists and zoologists say that there are two types of reproduction: -

  1. sexual
  2. asexual.

We can safely conclude that birth by agglutination according to Jain philosophy, is a type of asexual reproduction.


4. Scientific analysis of four one-sensed agglutinated beings

According to Jain philosophy, all one-sensed beings viz. earth, water, fire, air bodied organisms take birth by agglutination. But science does not believe in this concept. Scientists do not accept earth, water etc. to be living beings. Commonly the belief is that earth, water etc. bodied beings mean microorganisms residing in earth, water etc. Jain philosophy describes these beings also but at the same time they describes beings whose body is earth as earth-bodied-beings and so on. Microorganisms living in earth with its support and earth-bodied-beings are two separate entities. According to today's scientific study, micro-organisms living in a small particle of earth, a small drop of water etc. can be termed as bacteria, viruses and other kind of microbes.

Science believes yeast to be a type of bacteria which reproduces asexually. Amoeba also reproduces asexually. Amoeba is a unicellular micro­organism. It cannot be classified as male or female or parent or its offspring. Under favorable circumstances amoeba takes birth and multiply by division of its cell. The division and formation of new amoeba takes place in four days. Under difficult situation and unfavorable circumstances where the cell can't divide there is formation of almost 500 spores within the single cell, which disperse in different direction. These spores again under favorable circumstances reproduce by division. All one celled being like viruses, bacteria, fungi etc. reproduce as mentioned above. According to Jain philosophy this type of reproduction can be termed as agglutination.


5. Agglutination in plant-kingdom

In this point, we will discuss, whether the whole plant-kingdom can be related with agglutination.

Plant-kingdom is considered at great length in the ancient Jain texts. [17]
This special treatment is given due to their visibility to naked eye, their usefulness to human and subhuman species and the plants possess observable growth, reproduction and life-cycle.
Jain texts enumerates 10 lakh yonis of pratyeka-vanaspati and 14 lakh yonis of sādhāraṇa-vanaspati. According to them, all these vanaspatis reproduce themselves by agglutination.

Botanists divide plant-kingdom into flowering plants and non-flowering plants. In some of the flowering plants there are male and female pollens. With their close contact, seeds are produced. But all seeds do not grow into plants. Botanists have observed that some flowering plants are only male-plants while some are only female-plants. Secondly, in flowering and non-flowering-plants, we can reproduce the species by planting a branch, stem etc. Such type of plants can be called agglutinated plants.

The term 'clone' is derived from the Greek word denoting 'trunk' or 'branch', referring the process whereby a new plant can be created from a twig. The modern method of 'tissue culture' in which saplings are produced by using a fragment of plant, can be designated as agglutination. In Botany, 'fragmentation' is defined in the following manner: -

Fragmentation is a form of asexual reproduction, where a new organism grows from a fragment of the parent. Fragmentation is seen in fungi and some plants.

The Ardhamāgadhī canon Sūtrakṛtāṅga, enumerates the water-plants as avaka, panaka, śaivāla, kalaṁbuka, haḍa, kaseruka etc. [18] We can say that these aqua plants are reproduced by fragmentation. Daśavaikālika mentions a list of plants as agābīyā, mūlabīyā, porabīyā, khandhabīyā and so on. [19] These are certainly the examples of fragmentation. Since fragmentation is a variety of asexual reproduction, we can designate these plants as 'agglutinated'.

In the botanical texts, the second variety of asexual reproduction is apomixis. Apomixis in plants is the formation of a new sporophyte without fertilization. It is important in ferns and in flowering plants. It means, the flowering plants in which reproduction is seen by apomixis can be called agglutinated plants. For example, some of the fig trees bear flowers having only female pollens, still figs are produced.

In nutshell, we can say that in Jain texts, the whole plant-kingdom is brought under agglutination, but botanically it is not totally true. In botanical texts it is noted that in some of the most undeveloped species of plants like fungus and algae, the sexual and asexual production is seen.

We have to be satisfied with the fact that the ancient Jain texts mention two varieties of asexual reproduction, viz. fragmentation and apomixis.


6. Agglutination in two-three and four-sensed organisms

According to Jain philosophy two-sensed to four-sensed organisms, take birth by the process of agglutination viz.: -

  • two-sensed organisms, e.g. worms, leeches, mollusk, snail etc.;
  • three-sensed organisms, e.g. ants, fleas, plant-lice, termites etc.;
  • four-sensed organisms, e.g. flies, mosquitoes, butterflies, moths etc.

Thus the above mentioned category of organisms reproduces asexually.

Important Jain texts like Sthānāṅga, Samavāyāṅga, Bhagavatī, Jīvābhigama and Uttarādhyanana fail to comment about the process of reproduction of the two to four-sensed organisms. But Prajñāpanā, Tattvārtha and the commentaries of these texts and Gommaṭasāra (Jīvakāṇḍa) have distinctly described birth by agglutination in these organisms. [20]

According to Zoology worms, ants, flies etc. reproduce sexually. Under unfavorable or exceptional situations these organisms reproduce by different methods of reproductions e.g. normally the honey-bee reproduce sexually, but when there is absence of female-queen-bee, a worker-bee (homosexual) can transform itself into a female-bee and can lay eggs without the process of mating. We can say that the birth of these bees take place by agglutination.
In spite of faster rate of reproduction by asexual means why do these organisms reproduce sexually, is still unanswered even to the scientists. According to the scientists multicellular organisms rely more on sexual method of reproduction. Due to this organisms which can adapt to the changing environment are born. Hence asexual reproduction is less rampant in these organisms.

The females of two to four called organisms usually lay hundreds of eggs at a time. Hence cluster of such insects are born altogether. Hence Jain philosophy labels them as agglutinated beings. Modern Zoological science describes 'hydra' as: -

'Budding is also known on a multicellular level, an animal example is the hydra, which reproduces by budding. The buds grow into fully matured individuals which eventually break away from the parent organism.'

This 'hydra' can be categorized into agglutinated being.

'Fragmentation is a form of asexual reproduction where a new organism grows from a fragment of the parent. Each fragment develops into a mature, fully grown individual. Fragmentation is seen in many organisms such as some annelid worms and sea stars have specialized structures for reproduction via fragmentation.'

Hence the above mentioned organisms like worms, sea stars can also be called as agglutinated beings.

'Parthenogenesis is a form of agamogenesis in which an unfertilized egg develops into a new individual. Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in invertebrates like water fleas, aphids, stick insects, some ants, bees and parasitic wasps.'

All the above described beings can also be classified into agglutinated beings. According to zoological science honeybees reproduce sexually as well as asexually.

Jain texts mention that all agglutinated beings are 'napuṁsakavedī'. These organisms carry some characteristic marks of male as well as some of females. Such organisms are eager to mate both male and female. [21] We cannot say that all agglutinated beings are napuṁsakavedī according to botanical and zoological views, but both of the sciences mention a group of organisms which is called 'a class of Hermaphrodite'.

In biological context, a hermaphrodite is an animal or plant that has both male and female reproductive organs. Thus we can say that the hermaphrodites can be designated as agglutinated organisms.

Zoology also describes almost complete hermaphroditism in snails, slugs and few sub-varieties of fishes. In these, features of both the sex (male and female) are present as well as desire for sex persists. Amongst these banana-slugs a type of earthworm reproduces on its own, i.e. without male-female mating.


7. How can we scientifically describe the birth of five-sensed Tiryañcas (animals and birds)?

According to Jain philosophy the five-sensed sub-human-beings can take birth either by womb or by process of agglutination. These are five subtypes of five-sensed  sub-humans  which  are  - jalacara,   sthalacara, khecara, uraparisarpa and bhujaparisarpa. [22]
As discussed earlier, the birth taken from womb means sexual method of reproduction and birth by agglutination means asexual method of reproduction i.e. without male-female mating.

Asexual reproduction is the ability to reproduce without a partner in these situations, where the population density is low. The example can be given of some desert lizards. It is seen that, in some cases dinosaurs like animal living on oceanic islands, a single female member of the species is enough to start a population.

Parthenogenesis is a form of agamogenesis in which an unfertilized egg develops into a new individual. Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in many plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. The examples of vertebrates are some reptiles, amphibians, fish and very rarely birds.

According to modern Zoological science vertebrates and invertebrates reproduce either sexually or asexually depending upon the conducive atmosphere. However some reproduce only asexually. For example - one female turkey laid eggs by asexual method of reproduction and yet the eggs hatched giving birth to baby turkey.

Hammerhead shark and blacktip shark females on maturity give birth to young ones without mating (i.e. they reproduce asexually) give birth to young ones.

Bdelloid rotifer reproduces only by asexual method. Scientists believe that these species are reproducing in this manner from last 10 lakh years.

Some sub-species of frog and fishes reproduce in different manner altogether, though they exist in different male-female identity. In these types the female goes near the water and lays eggs. Then the male counterpart excretes semen. The sperm from semen penetrates the egg and a new being is formed which has undergone various stages of development like two, four, eight cell being serially. Thus from these multicullular stage a tadpole and later a frog is born.

Thus the above mentioned examples in zoology are similar to agglutinated five-sensed sub-human-beings of Jain philosophy.

The undeveloped vegetations from the flora-kingdom and aquatic beings from the fauna sector reproduce asexually. Based on these observations Hemecandra mentions: -

सम्मूर्च्छनाज्जायन्ते सम्मूर्च्छजाः, आदिग्रहणाद् भूच्छत्राद्याः॥
मत्स्यादयाः सम्मूर्च्छनोभ्दवाः॥ आदिग्रहणात् सर्पादयः॥ [23]


8. How can we explain the concept of sammūrcchima manuṣyas, in modern scientific way?

Jain philosophy describes birth by womb and birth by agglutination for human beings. Right from the process of male-female mating to conception to actual birth is described in detail in various works like Tandulavaicārika, Prajñāpanā and Jīvābhigama. These also describe the varied physical and mental development in human beings. Moreover agglutinated human beings are also described in Jain texts like Sthānāṅga, Samavāyāṅga, Bhagavatī, Jīvābhigama, Prajñāpanā, Uttarādhyanana, Gommaṭasāra (Jīvakāṇḍa) etc.

Agglutinated human beings are described in Prajñāpanā as follows: -

से किं तं मणुस्सा? मणुस्सा दुविहा पण्णत्ता, तं जहा - सम्मुच्छिममणुस्सा य गब्भवक्कंतियमणुस्सा य। से किं तं सम्मुच्छिममणुस्सा? सम्मुच्छिममणुस्सा एगागारा पण्णत्ता।
कहिं णं भंते सम्मुच्छिममणुस्सा सम्मुच्छंति? गोयमा! अंतोमणुस्सखेत्ते पणतालीसाए जोयणसयसहस्सेसु अढाइज्जेसु दीवसमेद्देसु पन्नरससु कम्मभूमीसु तीसाए अकम्मभूमीसु छप्पणाए अंतरदीवएसु गब्भवक्कंतियमणुस्साणं चेव उच्चारेसु वा पासवणेसु वा खेलेसु वा सिंघाणेसु वा वंतेसु वा पित्तेसु वा पूएसु वा सोणिएसु वा सुक्केसु वा सुक्कपोग्गलपरिसाडिसु वा विगतजीवकलेवरेसु वा थी-पुरिससंजोएसु वा णगरणिद्धमणेसु वा सव्वेसु चेव 'असुइएसु ठाणेसु' एत्थ णं सम्मुछिममणुस्स सम्मुच्छंति। अंगुलस्स असंखेज्जइ-भागमेत्तीए ओगाहणाए असण्णी मिच्छादिट्ठी अण्णाणी सव्वाहिं पज्जतीहिं अपज्जत्तगा अंतोमुहुत्ताउया चेव कालं करेंति। से तं सम्मुच्छिममणुस्सा। [24]

According to the above description: -

  1. All agglutinated human beings have similar shape.
  2. Its measurement is the infinite part of a fingertip (i.e. aṅgula-asaṁkhejja-bhāga).
  3. Agglutinated human beings are mindless, have false belief, are ignorant and immature.
  4. The maximum life span is of 48 minutes.
  5. These agglutinated beings are born in fourteen impure places like stools, urine, sputum, pus, blood, semen, dead bodies of human beings who take birth by womb.

Pathology describes excretion of various cells of human beings in their excreta like stools, urine, sputum, blood, vomit etc. which according to Jain science forms the birth place for agglutinated beings. Though these excreta might differ in their appearance yet they have same genetic makeup i.e. DNA (deoxy ribose nucelic acid) which forms the identity of that particular being. Hence probably agglutinated beings are described to be of same shape.

DNA is present in each and every cell of human beings. According to Jain philosophy agglutinated beings take birth only at impure places i.e. various excretions. But this philosophy mentions birth in any of the human being body part as they consider the human body to be impure.


9. Can we establish relationship between agglutinated beings and cloning?

Cloning in biology is the process of producing of genetically-identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually. Cloning in biotechnology refers to process which is used to create copies of DNA fragments (molecular cloning), cells (cell cloning) or organisms.

According to genetic science, cloning is done artificially. Cloning has been almost successful in plants and some animals. Human cloning is still under trial.

According to the concept of agglutinated human beings in Jain philosophy, these asexually born human beings could be replicated if the immature paryāptis are matured artificially in favorable conditions. The concept of sammūrcchima is certainly the distinctive feature of Jainism.

Thus in-toto, agglutinated human beings are born asexually from sexually born human beings under natural circumstances. Same thing done artificially in laboratories is nothing but cloning.

Genetic differences seen in the plant-kingdom in dense forest is by the process of agglutination which occurs naturally. We humans do the same artificially by twig grafting, seed grafting, tissue culture which is cloning. Same is true for animals.


10. Conclusive remarks

The verb 'saṁ-mūrch' is found in various brahmanical Sanskrit texts denoting various meanings like - to be unconscious, to churn, to grow, to form and so on. In the Jain texts, the noun 'saṁmūrcchana' is closely connected with the process of birth, which is the distinctive feature of Jainism.

When we read the description of this concept from the Jain texts, at the outset, we think that hundreds of organisms are produced without the presence of males and females. But when a deep thought is given, we realize that "How sat (सत्) can be produced from asta (अस्त)?" Therefore we have to presume that a certain fragment of that organism should be there at the birthplace when the process of agglutination takes place.

We have to presume that garbha-janma is sexual reproduction and saṁmūrcchana is asexual reproduction. Saṁmūcchana or agglutination is seen in the microbes having one-sense to five-senses. With the help of botanical and biological sciences, we can interpret the references found in the Jain texts.

Each of the species of the microbes exerts for its existence during the continuous life-process. It is the basic instinct of all living beings. This instinct is realised through sexual and asexual reproduction. This instinctive force is underlined by Jainism as well as by the life-sciences like botany and biology.

Jainism proclaims that each jīva (i.e. microbe) is separate and individually independent. Science also says that the DNA of every living organism is unique.

According to the Jain thought, agglutinated beings are weak, undeveloped and almost devoid of perceptive knowledge. Scientists also say that the beings produced by asexual reproduction are comparatively weaker and their capacity of adaption is lesser.

The possibility of cloning, tissue-culture, grafting etc. can be traced in the ancient concept of agglutination.

The Jain texts say that all the beings, which are born by agglutination, are napuṁsakas. It is implied that for the further reproduction the same process of agglutination is followed. But the scientists say that the hermaphrodites reproduce further by sexual and asexual reproduction.

The Jain term 'saṁmūrcchima manuṣya', suggests the possibility of human clone. The description of 'saṁmūrcchima manuṣyas' available in the Jain texts imply that it is impossible to produce the exact 'garbhaja manuṣya' from the saṁmūcchima manuṣya. Genetic engineers are exerting a lot. But there experiments say that the clones do not have long life-spans and they do not possess the ability to reproduce. This observation is noted down in the experiment of the cloning of dolly-ship.

A lot of efforts have been made to prove the scientific nature of Jainism by analyzing the six categories from the viewpoint of physics but there is a lot of scope to discover the Jain thoughts from the viewpoint of botany, biology, zoology and genetics.


11. Bibliography

  1. अभिधानचिन्तामणि नाममाल, आ. हेमचंद्र, जैन साहित्य वर्धक सभा, अहमदाबाद, वि. सं. २०३२.
  2. आचारांग (अंगसुत्ताणि १), जैन विश्वभारती, लाडनूं (राजस्थान), वि. सं. २०३१.
  3. उत्तराध्ययन, सं. मुनि पुण्यविजय, महावीर जैन विद्यालय, १९७७.
  4. किरातार्जुनीयम्, हरिदास संस्कृत ग्रंथमाला, चोखम्बा सम्स्कृत सीरिज ऑफीस, वाराणसी, १९६८.
  5. गोम्मटसार (जीवकांड), रामचंद्र जैनशास्त्रमाला, निर्णयसागर प्रेस, मुंबई, १९१६.
  6. जीवाभिगम (उवंगसुत्ताणि ४) खंड १, जैन विश्वभारती, लाडनूं (राजस्थान), १९८७.
  7. तत्त्वार्थसूत्र, उमास्वातिप्रणीत, सुखलाल संघवी, पार्श्वनाथ विद्याश्रम शोध संस्थान, वाराणसी, १९८५.
  8. तत्त्वार्थाधिगमसूत्रम्, उमास्वातिप्रणीत, स्वोपज्ञभाष्य व सिद्धसेनगणिटीकायुक्त, प्रथमविभाग, देवचंद लालभाई जैन पुस्तकोद्धार फंड, मुंबई, १९२६.
  9. दशवैकालिक, सं. मुनि पुन्यविजय, महावीर जैन विद्यालय, इ. स. १९७७.
  10. प्रज्ञापना (उवंगसुत्ताणि ४) खंड २, जैन विश्वभारती, लाडनूं (राजस्थान), १९८९.
  11. भगवती (अंगसुत्ताणि २), जैन विश्वभारती, लाडनूं (राजस्थान), वि. सं. २०३१.
  12. समवायांग (अंगसुत्ताणि १) जैन विश्वभारती, लाडनूं (राजस्थान), वि. सं. २०३१.
  13. सूत्रकृतांग (अंगसुत्ताणि १) जैन विश्वभारती, लाडनूं (राजस्थान), वि. सं. २०३१.
  14. षट्खंडागम (धवला टीका), जीवस्थान-सत्प्ररूपणा १, सं. हीरालाल जैन, जैन साहित्योद्धारक-फंड-कार्यालय, अमरावती, १९३९.

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  1. Acitta
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  3. Aṇḍaja
  4. Body
  5. DNA
  6. Daśavaikālika
  7. Environment
  8. Gati
  9. Genetics
  10. Gommaṭasāra
  11. Jain Philosophy
  12. Jainism
  13. Jalacara
  14. Jarāyuja
  15. Jasol
  16. Jīva
  17. Jīvasthāna
  18. Karma
  19. Karmic Body
  20. Khecara
  21. Lakh
  22. Mahārāṣṭra
  23. Mandal
  24. Manuṣya
  25. Microorganisms
  26. National Symposium on Jain Philosophy, Science And Scriptures
  27. Non-violence
  28. Paryāpta
  29. Potaja
  30. Prakrit
  31. Rajasthan
  32. Sanskrit
  33. Science
  34. Soul
  35. Sthalacara
  36. Sūtrakṛtāṅga
  37. Tattvārthasūtra
  38. Violence
  39. Ācārāṅga
  40. महावीर
  41. राजस्थान
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