The Unknown Loṅkā Tradition and the Cultural Unconscious (3)

Published: 04.03.2016
Updated: 04.03.2016


The second manuscript, No. 4121, contains only one text, Luṅkā nī Huṇḍī 34 Bol (=LH), Loṅkā's list of thirty-four assertions,[194] which gives thirty-three examples from the commentaries for significant deviations from the scriptures under the label of apavāda, or exception. The statements No. 1-25 criticise various points of the Niśītha Cūrṇī, which cannot be found in the Nisīha, No. 26 does the same for the Uttarādhyayana Vṛtti, No. 27 for the Vyavahāra Vṛtti, Nos. 28-33 for the Āvaśyaka Niryukti, and the last section for the Prajṭāpanā Vṛtti. The underlying ordering principle of the diverse list of topics is the reference to the five mahāvratas. More than one example is given for excuses for the exceptional use of violence in self-defence (Nos. 1, 22, 26); for the violation of the vow on nonpossession (Nos. 3, 4); for the violation of the vow of not taking what is not given (Nos. 2, 18, 28, 29); for the violation of the vow of celibacy (Nos. 14, 15, 23);[195] and for using living objects such as water, fire, earth, food, plants, etc., in various contexts. Because the text focuses only on explicit discrepancies between canonical and post-canonical monastic law, and on the use of prāyaścittas for normalising transgressions (No. 23), image-worship is not mentioned at all, and neither are issues of contemporary practice. Interestingly, both the Vavahāra and the Āvassaya Sutta are implicitly referred to, which are often cited in the modern secondary literature as the two texts whose canonical status may have been disputed between the early Loṅkāgaccha and the Sthānakavāsī traditions.[196]


The fifty-four rhetorical questions Whose tradition is that? (Te Keha nī Paramparā Chai?),[197] which are appended to the Aṭhāvan Bol in the L.D. Institute Ms. 2989, effectively ask (like some of the Aṭhāvan Bols) whether any of the listed practices (not beliefs), which must have been prevalent amongst the image-worshipping Jaina traditions of the time, are backed up by the "root" scriptures.[198] Since the answer is assumed to be "no" in all cases, the main function of the questions is to provide summary criticism of the key shortcomings of the addressees of these questions, which in accordance with the etiquette of the praśnottara genre are not explicitly mentioned. Fifty-two almost identical questions which were attributed to Loṅkā were published in Hindī in the fourth edition of Muni Jeṭhmal's (1930: 14f.) polemical work Samakitasāra.[199] The content of this slightly shorter list overlaps to a large extent with K, but comprises some extra questions, which points to the existence of other recensions which are yet to be unearthed, or to later interpolations.[200] The original text (K) can be translated as follows:

The tradition is written. Someone says, Śrī Vīra's tradition says this. Where is that?[201]

1. To cause images to be made and to be installed (maṇḍāvai) in the house, whose tradition is that?[202] To buy male and female disciples (celā-celī), whose tradition is that?[203]

2. To give initiation to small children, whose tradition is that?[204]

3. To change the name (to give a different name at the time of initiation), whose tradition is that?

4. To cause the ear to be extended (vadhārai), whose tradition is that?[205]

5. To venerate (viharai) the forgiving guru (in the presence of symbols), whose tradition is that?[206]

6. To amuse oneself (viharai)[207] sitting in the householder's house, whose tradition is that?

7. To go every day to the same house (for food), whose tradition is that?[208]

8. To ask (someone) to take a bath, whose tradition is that?[209]

9. To make use (prajuṃjai) of the secret of astrology, whose tradition is that?

10. To tell the future, whose tradition is that?[210]

11. To cause a reception to be held at the time of entering into a town, whose tradition is that?

12. To consecrate sweets, whose tradition is that?

13. To cause the worship of religious books, whose tradition is that?

14. To cause the performance of saṅghapūjā, whose tradition is that?[211]

15. To perform installation ceremonies (of idols), whose tradition is that?[212]

16. To give books during paryuṣaṇa, whose tradition is that?[213]

17. And to sell pilgrimages, whose tradition is that?[214]

18. And to give a certain amount,[215] whose tradition is that?

19. And to bind garlands made of vegetation to arched gateways, whose tradition is that?

20. To keep specially prepared food (ādhākarma) for the ascetics in the poṣadhaśālā,[216] whose tradition is that?[217]

21. To create the impression of the importance of the scriptures but not reading them, whose tradition is that?[218]

22. To cause decorative pavilions (for images) to be constructed, whose tradition is that?[219]

23. To cause the fast in the name of[220] "Gautama" to be performed, whose tradition is that?

24. To cause the "Saṃsāratāraṇa" (vow to be taken), whose tradition is that?[221]

25. To cause the "Candanabālā" fast to be performed, whose tradition is that?[222]

26. To cause the "ladder of gold and silver" (sonā rūpā nī nīsaraṇī) to be created, whose tradition is that?[223]

27. To cause the "Lākhā Paḍavi" to be performed, whose tradition is that?[224]

28. To cause gifts to be given (ḍhovarāvai) to celebrate the end of a fast (ūṃjamaṇā), whose tradition is that?[225]

29. To cause the pūjā to be recited,[226] whose tradition is that?

30. To cause the "Aśoka-tree" (āso vṛkṣa) to be supported (bharavāi),[227] whose tradition is that?[228]

31. To cause the eightfold bath (aṭṭhottarī snātra) to be performed, whose tradition is that?[229]

32. To cause fresh rice and fresh fruit to be offered in front of an image, whose tradition is that?[230]

33. To put sandalwood powder[231] on the head of laymen and laywomen, whose tradition is that?

34. To be involved[232] in the search for possessions, whose tradition is that?[233]

35. To cause the laity to offer a head tax (pāīṃ mūṇḍaka) before ascending a hill (pilgrimage site), whose tradition is that?[234]

36. To place garlands (on persons or idols), whose tradition is that?[235]

37. To permit laymen and laywomen to walk together (during pilgrimages) by foot, whose tradition is that?[236]

38. To cause the "Nāndi"[237] to be erected, whose tradition is that?

39. To cause foot prints (shrines) (padīka cāṃka) to be built, whose tradition is that?

40. To put powder (bhūko) into the water, whose tradition is that?[238]

41. To cause worship (vāndaṇā) to be offered, whose tradition is that?[239]

42. To move the broom (oghā) (in front of the idols), whose tradition is that?[240]

43. To keep the deva dravya, whose tradition is that?[241]

44. To wear a long covering garment (pacheṛī) down to the feet, whose tradition is that?[242]

45. To accept the sūrimantra, whose tradition is that?[243]

46. To recite the sūrimantra every day, whose tradition is that?[244]

47. To shine in starched[245] (white clothes), whose bright tradition is that?

48. To cause the "Bairakanhai" fast to be performed during paryuṣaṇa, whose tradition is that?[246]

49. To cause a waterpot (ghaḍūlā) to be made, whose tradition is that?[247]

50. To cause the āyambila olī fast to be performed together with the siddhacakra (pūjā), whose tradition is that?[248]

51. To hold a ceremony of mourning (ūṭhamaṇuṃ)[249] after the death of an ascetic, whose tradition is that?

52. To cause the swinging of the images (of the fourteen dreams of Mahāvīra's mother) to be performed, whose tradition is that?[250]

53. To create a decorated table (ṭhavaṇī) in front of the feet (of an ascetic or an image),[251] whose tradition is that?

54. To perform the pratikramaṇa on the fourth day (of the second lunar fortnight) of paryuṣaṇa, whose tradition is that?[252]

Notably, the questions are addressed to a Jaina mendicant, not to the laity, and imply a mendicant perspective. The basic question, whether any of the fifty-four listed beliefs and practices corresponds to the teachings of the root scriptures seems, at first sight, to reflect an attitude of a-temporal lay-inspired scriptural literalism which deliberately ignores the commentary traditions of the teachers of the mendicant lineages.[253] However, a closer view reveals that Loṅkā may not have rejected commentaries per se, especially not those (such as the later vernacular ṭabos) which merely explain the meaning of the sūtras themselves, but only commentaries or parts of commentaries whose contents do not correspond at all to the teachings of the root scriptures. Mālvaṇiyā 1964: 377f. argued that this interpretation is supported by the fact that the two Mss. which have been attributed to Loṅkā make use of all available Jaina scriptures and commentaries. Further evidence for a positive attitude toward the commentaries in the aniconic Jaina tradition can be found in the published Sthānakavāsī and Terāpanth Āgama editions which make explicit use of all commentaries in order to establish the literal meaning of the sūtras themselves, though some modern monks, such as Upādhyāya Amarmuni, argue that because of their condensed nature the sūtras are intrinsically polyvalent and can therefore only be interpreted symbolically.[254] In contrast to Mālvaṇīya's view that the canon of thirty-two was codified after the emergence of the Sthānakavāsī orders, there is evidence that Loṅkā himself advocated for a restricted canon of thirty-two scriptures in Bhānucandra's Dayādharma Caupāī v. 19 of 1521/2, though, if Mālvaṇīya's source Dharmasāgara's Pravacanaparīkṣā of 1572/3 can be believed, it had not been canonised one hundred years later. According to Kāpaḍiā (1941/2000: 38, 53), even the current Mūrtipūjaka classification of forty-five scriptures emerged sometime after the 14th century. The construction of alternative Āgama classifications in the late medieval period thus appears to be generally a product of sectarian politics, predicated on the emergence of a new style of text-oriented critique in "reformed" gacchas and gaṇas.

The fifty-four questions are de facto commentaries themselves, whose contents have in parts been canonised in the aniconic tradition. Their rhetoric may be literalist and fundamentalist, but they function as means of innovation and of canonisation, since they censure certain customary practices which back them up, while favouring others which are not explicitly mentioned. The fluidity of the usage of textual allusions is illustrated by Loṅkā's objection to child initiation (K2) which contradicts the canonical Vavahāra 10.16f.,[255] and by the fact that the equally rejected custom of changing names at the point of initiation (K3) is nowadays practiced by several Sthānakavāsī traditions,[256] and by the Terāpanthīs. Since much of the meaning of the fifty-four questions is contextual and implicit, their interpretation must remain tentative. However, the collection and analysis of similar lists from the same period, as studied by Dundas (1999) and Balbir (2003a; 2003b), may in future produce a clearer view of the sectarian faultlines in the 15th and 16th centuries.


With the publications of Mālvaṇiyā and Hastīmal, in particular, fruitful comparisons between the early beliefs and customs of different aniconic traditions are rendered possible for the first time. Of special interest is the reconstruction of the early development of the Loṅkāgaccha for which still hardly any evidence exists. For the present investigation of the effective history of Loṅkā the comparison between "Loṅkā's" writings and versions of his teachings transmitted within the Sthānakavāsī tradition is important, as are preliminary observations on the differences between the customary law (maryādā) of the early Sthānakavāsī traditions and "Loṅkā's" proclamations.

To my knowledge, in addition to the paraphrases in Jeṭhmal (1930), only two texts are currently available on Loṅkā's rules in the Sthānakavāsī secondary literature. One was published by Sādhvī Candanākumārī (1964: 102)[258] and the other by Gulābacanda Nānacanda Seṭh (1970: 703f.).[259] This is somewhat surprising, given the importance of Loṅkā as the founder of the aniconic Jaina traditions. However, a recent survey by the present writer has shown that most of the ancient sources of the comparatively sparse literary output of the aniconic traditions before the 20th century has either been lost or not been catalogued or used. Even the writings of the founders of the Sthānakavāsī traditions have not been preserved in their original form. It is therefore not surprising that no literary traces of the debates between the followers of the Loṅkā traditions and the Sthānakavāsī (and Terāpanth) traditions have been discovered to date.[260] Candanākumārī (1964: 102) writes that several manuscripts of the regulations (niyama) which Loṅkā himself composed for the Loṅkāgaccha mendicants (sādhu-sansthā) can be readily found in old Jaina libraries. She therefore decided to publish only a selection of eleven particularly "useful" rules in summary form in Hindī under the title Loṅkāgaccha kī Sāmācārī (LS).[261] Without acknowledgement of the source, her list was republished in Gujarātī by Muni Prakāścandra (1998: 31) of the Līmbḍī Moṭī Pakṣa.

The code of conduct of the Loṅkāgaccha[262]

1. Only the Sanskrit commentaries (ṭīkā) which agree with the scriptures are acceptable as authoritative.

2. One should live a steadfast disciplined life in agreement with the scriptures.

3. One should live a steadfast disciplined life in agreement with the scriptures.

4. Genuine, pure vegetarian food can be accepted from every family [caste].

5. It is not necessary for anyone to set up the symbols of the monastic order (sthāpanācārya) [for worship].[263]

6. During the vows of upavāsa,[264] etc., absolutely all types of lifeless (prāsuka) water can be accepted.

7. The one-day fast (upavāsa) can even be performed on days other than the lunar holy days (parva-tithi).[265]

8. There is no need for monks to practise the skills of mantra-tantra and yantra, etc.

9. Laymen can beg, but cannot receive religious gifts (dāna).

10. To give gifts (dāna) to the poor due to the feeling of compassion is not a sin (pāpa), but rather the cause of merit (puṇya).

11. There is no need to keep a staff (daṇḍa).[266]

If this list was indeed composed on the basis of primary literature, then the information must have been selected from all the texts that have been attributed to Loṅkā to date. The critique of the validity of the Jaina commentary literature in point one, for instance, is mainly discussed in the Loṅkā n ī Huṇḍī 34 Bol, and the locus classicus of Loṅkā's critique of image worship is the text Luṅkā nī Aṭhāvan Bol. Candanākumārī's method of extraction and her utilitarian criterion of "contemporary relevance" offers a glimpse into the rational of the strategies of selection, exegesis and transmission of chosen elements of the doctrinal tradition and of the customary law within the aniconic Jaina mendicant traditions.

A second Sthānakavāsī source for the rules and regulations of Loṅkā was published by Gulābcand Nāncand Seṭh (1970: 703f.), a poet who was hired to write down the results of the extensive historical research of Muni Cauthmal (died 1951) on the life of Ācārya Jaymal, which was completed by the munis Cāndmal (1908-1968), Jītmal and Lālcand, who in 1964 split from the Śramaṇasaṅgha in protest against the controversial institutional reforms of Ācārya Ānandṛṣi, and founded the independent Dharmadāsa Jayamala Sampradāya.[267] The bulky text, entitled Jaydhvaj, was published with the aim of strengthening the sectarian identity of the newly established tradition. The publication was supported by the influential Ācārya Hastīmal, who in 1968 also separated himself from the Śramaṇasaṅgha to re-establish the Ratnavaṃśa as an independent order. Hastīmal (1968) had already published a collection of paṭṭāvalīs of the Loṅkāgaccha tradition and of the Sthānakavāsīs, and systematically researched the history of the aniconic Jaina tradition during the following two decades.[268] The following twenty points (LN) which Seṭh attributes to Loṅkā have been summarised by him in Hindī without any reference to the original source. The introductory sentence only mentions that Loṅkā prepared this sāmācārī in Saṃvat 1531 (1474/5 CE) in order to prevent the rise of śithilācāra, or laxity, amongst the sādhus of Bhāṇā's newly created Loṅkāgaccha:[269]

1. Even without having completed the upadhāna fast one can study the scripture.[270]

2. From the point of view of religion, worshipping the Jina image is not in the forty-five scriptures.

3. Apart from the root aphorism (sūtra), the scripture (āgama) and the root teaching (śāstra), joined together with the Sanskrit commentaries (ṭīkā), other scripture and Sanskrit commentary is not to be believed in any respect.

4. It is forbidden to practice magical skills (vidyā).

5. The fast day (poṣadha) [and the] ritual of repentance (pratikramaṇa) is performed according to individual custom.

6. Apart from cāturmāsa, one can also use a seat (pāṭa) [during the rest of the year].[271]

7. One should not keep a staff.

8. One can possess books.[272]

9. Paying attention to genuineness and purity, one can collect alms from every family.

10. A layperson (śrāvaka) can also perform the almsround (gocarī).

11. A layperson (śrāvaka) cannot accept a religious gift (dāna).

12. During fasting (upavāsa pratyākhyāna) one can take lifeless whey (āch) of buttermilk.[273]

13. Poṣadha can even be performed without practising a one-day fast.[274]

14. A one-day fast (upavāsa) can even be performed on days other than the lunar holy days (tithi parva).

15. One can take the vow of a one-day fast together (in a group).

16. One should not enumerate the auspicious days (kalyāṇaka) amongst the lunar days (tithi).[275]

17. The day on which one takes a milk product, on that day one should not use hard (dvidala grains).[276]

18. It is not necessary to set up a sthāpanācārya

19. Within forty-eight minutes (do ghaṛī) life is generated in waste water (dhovana).[277]

20. From a religious understanding, to give a gift (dāna) to an unworthy one (apātra) must be violence (to give to a poor person out of compassion is not the cause of the fault of one-sidedness (ekānta pāpa)).[278]

The list overlaps to a great extent with Candanākumārī's, and may indeed have served as the immediate source for Candanākumārī's selection of useful points. In many cases the wording is almost identical. Another indication is that Seṭh's list is much more detailed, and must have been available to Candanākumārī, because it was apparently composed by Muni Cauthmal, who died in 1951, although it was published much later.[279] It is an intriguing but currently unanswerable question whether all of these rules go back to Loṅkā, or Bhāṇā, or whether at least some of these rules have been created by subsequent Loṅkāgaccha or Sthānakavāsī writers. Rule 2 states wrongly that worshipping images is not mentioned in the "forty-five" scriptures.


As indicated in the footnotes, most, but not all, points of the two largely overlapping lists concur with topics of "Loṅkā's" texts L, LH and K, and can be said to be historically akin to Loṅkā's teachings. However, certain points, particularly on gift giving and jīvadayā (see infra), seem to be later additions,[280] while many of the more intricate points in Loṅkā's texts have been left out altogether. Although the wording sometimes differs, the contents of Candanākumārī's list (LS) are entirely covered by Seṭh's list,[281] which confirms its derivative nature. The two lists have only few issues in common with the reported maryādās of three of the founders of the Sthānakavāsī tradition, Dharmasiṅha, Lava, and Dharmadāsa.[282] But many points mirror Kaḍuā's rules, which were, as Jṭānsundar (1936: 327, n. 4, etc.) suspected, probably formulated in contradistinction to Loṅkā's rules or vice versa. Though they differ in certain details, many of the transmitted rules of Loṅkā and Kaḍuā address similar issues. The main common topics are "ascetic"[283] rituals for the laity, such as the pratikramaṇa, sāmāyika, upadhāna, and poṣadha, which is often discussed in connection with the upavāsa fast. However, because both authors discuss many areas of monastic conduct as well, which do not overlap, it cannot be inferred from this that the followers of either Loṅkā and/or Kaḍuā were advanced householders, or yatis, and not mendicants. If the two Sthānakavāsī lists are considered together ("Loṅkā's" writings), the following picture emerges with regard to the lay rituals:

Both Loṅkā and Kaḍuā advocated the performance of the pratikramaṇa ritual, according to individual (LN 5) and group custom, not scripture (there are no pratikramaṇa texts in the Āgamas). However, Loṅkā (K 58) determined that, in accordance with the scriptures, the saṃvatsarī pratikramaṇa should be performed on the 5th bhadrapāda, not on the 4th bhadrapāda as Kaḍuā (following the Tapāgaccha custom) prescribed (KS 4). Contrary to the scriptures, Kaḍuā also fixed the pākṣika pratikramaṇa for the 14th of every lunar fortnight, not for the 15th (KS 3), and additionally adopted the tristuti formula (KS 11), which has been introduced by the Āgamikagaccha into the pratikramaṇa.[284]

Loṅkā (K 8) and Kaḍuā (KS 6) also agreed that the sāmāyika should be performed repeatedly. But only Kaḍuā asserted that the laity should use a muhapattī during the ritual (KS 5), and should recite the īryāpathika ā locanā after the first sāmāyika (KS 15).

The poṣadha is the topic of many points. It is usually discussed together with the topic of the one-day-fast (upavāsa).[285] Both Loṅkā (LS 7) and Kaḍuā (KS 7) determined that poṣadha can be performed repeatedly according to individual preference (LN 5), even outside the parvan days, on which it is obligatory.[286] However, Kaḍuā (KS 13) prohibited the consumption of all food or water during the fast (upavāsa), whereas Loṅkā permitted the use of all types of lifeless water, and of the whey (āch) of buttermilk, the use of which was/is prohibited in many Sthānakavāsī traditions.[287] Kaḍuā stressed particularly that women can also perform poṣadha (KS 11). Loṅkā emphasised that one upavāsa can be performed together in a group (LN 15).

The statements KS 11 and LN 15 may refer to the collective upadhāna fast as well. The upadhāna is an extended poṣadha (cum study) exercise, that was propagated by Loṅkā and Kaḍuā, who both however rejected the ceremonial garlanding of the tapasvīns with flowers at the end of the fast (K 36, KS 9), as performed by the Mūrtipūjakas. At the time, the upadhāna must have been performed either with or without studying, otherwise Loṅkā would not have highlighted that one can study the scripture "even without having completed the upadhāna fast" (LN 1); although his rule may also reflect customary prohibitions for studying certain texts without prior fasting.

The principal difference between Kaḍuā and Loṅkā, according to the lists published by Seṭh and Candanākumārī, was that Kaḍuā, who assumed an intermediary position between Loṅkā and the Mūrtipūjakas (especially the dominant Tapāgaccha), also propagated image-worship (KS 1, KS 20),[288] though rejecting the installation (pratiṣṭhā) of images by monks rather than laity (KS 2). Kaḍuā also advocated the veneration of the sthāpanācārya (KS 10), which Loṅkā rejected as a "worship of dead objects" (LS 5, LN 18). These differences can be explained in terms of fundamentally different attitudes to the scriptures, because Kaḍuā accepted the authority of the post-canonical calendar,[289] and maybe (though there is no evidence) defined the auspicious days (kalyāṇaka) as moon days (tithi) which Loṅkā explicitly criticised (since this would artificially reduce the number of fast days) (LN 16), and commentaries such as the Āvaśyaka Cūrṇī (KS 13, KS 15) or the Bṛhatkalpabhāṣya (KS 8) which Loṅkā had rejected (L 57, LS 1),[290] though both referred to the "seniors" of the canon as the main source for monastic conduct (KS 18).[291]


One of the most controversial issues in the aniconic Jaina tradition is the question of the origins of the so-called dāna-dayā theory, the doctrine of the religious value of the protection of life through charity and active compassionate help, not only to Jainas but to all living beings. Under Ācārya Bhikṣu, the Terāpanth tradition split from the Sthānakavāsī Dharmadāsa Raghunātha Sampradāya because it believed that such actions contributed only to the accumulation of puṇya, but nothing to the reduction of the overall karmic load. From the absolute point of view (niścaya naya), therefore, compassionate help is an impediment to ultimate salvation, and in this sense a sin (pāpa). The Terāpanthīs tend to claim that Loṅkā already rejected the dāna-dayā theories of the Mūrtipūjakas and Sthānakavāsīs, and that they are presently the only aniconic tradition which still pursues Loṅkā's neo-orthodox point of view. It seems that the text Loṅkejī k ī Huṇḍī was published deliberately      by the Terāpanth tradition in the mid-1930s, when the sectarian disputes within the Jaina community peaked, to prove this point. By contrast, many contemporary Sthānakavāsīs believe that Loṅkā was the originator of their own interpretation of the dāna-dayā theory, which promotes merit-making through dāna for financing gośālās rather than temples, although Jṭānsundar (1936: 210, n. 1) and other critics of the aniconic tradition argued, with reference to early Mūrtipūjaka polemics against Loṅkā, that it must have been one of the early leaders of the Loṅkāgaccha who introduced this doctrine, since Loṅkā rejected the religious merit of gift giving altogether (for purposes other than sustaining the subsistence of worthy mendicants), though L commends the sponsorship of upāśrayas.[292] At the same time, most modern commentators underline that Loṅkā himself was not an initiated monk, and that even the early Loṅkāgaccha ascetics may have been yatis, half-ascetics in the modern sense, rather than sādhus and sādhvīs, and thus must have stood with one foot in the world.[293] This remains an open question, although Loṅkā's own writings suggest that Loṅkā himself was vigorously opposed to a semi-ascetic lifestyle (L8 and LH whose structure is informed by the mahāvratas). The example of contemporary Digambara bhaṭṭārakas[294] indicates that even yatis tend to be paṭca-mahāvratis, they simply do not observe the rules strictly, or interpret them slightly differently, not unlike the aṇuvratas for the laity.

Of particular interest in this context are the three statements concerning compassionate gift giving (dāna-dayā) in the two Sthānakavāsī summaries of "Loṅkā's" teachings, LS and LN. For these statements, no equivalent assertions can be found in "Loṅkā's" texts L, LH, and K, which use dayā dharma and jīva dayā merely as synonyms of ahiṃsā dharma.[295] The rules LS 4 = LN 9 describe in a straightforward way that a renouncer can collect food from all families, without regard to caste and class, if the food and the manner of giving correspond to the canonical rules.[296] This contrasts both with the rule No. 75 of 101 Bol of the Kaḍuāgaccha which prohibits the renouncers to visit houses of followers of the Loṅkāgaccha,[297] and with the Mūrtipūjaka preference for vaṇik (vāṇiyā) households as expressed in rule No. 2 of the Paĩtīs Bol (PB) of 1526/7 of the Mūrtipūjaka reformer Ācārya Ānandvīmalsūri (1490-1539).[298] The texts ascribed to Loṅkā himself remain silent on this point.

Rules LS 9 = LN 10+LN 11 are more puzzling. They state that "a layperson" can perform gocarī in the manner of an ascetic, but cannot receive dāna in the manner of an ascetic. How can this be understood? The use of the term gocarī rules out non-religious contexts of begging which are addressed in LS 10. The most likely explanation points to the definition of the intermediary stages between householder and mendicant, since the religious status of Loṅkā and the Loṅkāgaccha ascetics was disputed from the beginning in the literature. In the eleventh pratimā, or stage of spiritual progress for the laity, a lay person should renounce all business of the world, has the head shaven, is clad in a mendicant's garment, carries a broom (rajoharaṇa), and a begging bowl (pātra), and performs the begging round, though technically not in the same manner as a monk (Williams 1983: 178-180). This means that although a layperson who took the vow of the eleventh pratimā performs the almsround in exactly the same way as a mendicant, technically s/he does not qualify for being a worthy receiver (supātra) for a religious gift (dāna) which generates a destruction of karma (and the accumulation of puṇya karma) on the part of the giver.

The rules concerning giving must have been created or selected from an unmentioned source by the Sthānakavāsīs to clearly demarcate the status of a properly initiated mendicant from an advanced householder or (Loṅkāgaccha) yati.[299] A material gift can, after all, also become a means of material enrichment. This explanation corresponds well to LN 20, which is addressed not to the receiver but to the giver. The first part states: "From a religious understanding, to give a gift (dāna) to an unworthy one (apātra) must be violence". This statement coincides with the conventional view presented in the Āgamas and in the Śrāvakācāra literature.[300] However, rather than representing the summary of a statement of "Loṅkā", the second part of the assertion (in brackets) seems to introduce a new argument, which lends support to the dominant Sthānakavāsī position in the debate with the Terāpanthīs on the nature of the pure gift (śuddha dāna), seen from the transcendent (niścaya) and conventional (vyavahāra) perspectives: "to give to a poor person out of compassion is not the cause of the fault of onesidedness" (ekānta pāpa).[301] In contrast to the first part of LN 20, the equivalent formulation LS 10 in the list of Candanākumārī is not entirely consistent with the previous rules on giving, by eliminating the brackets and by using the unqualified term dāna[302] for the compassionate giving to the "poor" (garīb), while avoiding the doctrinal term kupātra: "To give gifts (dāna) to the poor due to the feeling of compassion is not a sin (pāpa), but rather the cause of merit (puṇya)". This interpretation contrasts both with the Terāpanth distinction between lokottara dāna and laukika dāna and with the conventional Sthānakavāsī interpretation of religious charity, which also stresses the suboptimal, if sometimes acceptable, character of giving to a kupātra or apātra. Given the subsequent life-course of the author Candanākumārī, the founder of the reformist Vīrāyatan group of nuns who engage in social work in the manner of Christian nuns,[303] it must be assumed that the word dāna was used intentionally in an unqualified form. It should be interesting to trace the origins of this belief in anukampādāna, a concept which is mentioned already in the canonical texts òhāṇa 10.475 and Viyāhapannatti 304b but re-projected and attributed to Loṅkā within the Sthānakavāsī traditions which now regard it as their own distinctive teaching. The contemporary Loṅkāgaccha tradition itself has lost all written sources and retains no cultural memory anymore on the doctrinal views of Loṅkā or the earlier Loṅkāgaccha ācāryas.


Primary Sources

A = Loṅkejī kī Huṇḍī, of Loṅkā [?]. (Reportedly based on a Rājasthānī Ms. of Saṃvat 1830 in the Rūpacanda Rāmacanda Upāśraya, Jaitāraṇa.) With a dohā-style commentary of Gulābcand (Luṇiyā?), written in Jaypur in 1926. Published in Caudharī 1936?: 338-430. A corrupted version of the Rājasthānī root text has been published under the title Ath Huṇḍī Lūṅkārī Likhyate in Āṭcaliyā 1937: 120-128.

AB  = Asūtranirākaraṇ Batrīśī, of the Mūrtipūjaka Muni Bīkā. Ca. Saṃvat 1527 (1470/1). Published in Jṭānsundar 1936, Appendix 1, pp. 230233; Koṭhārī 2001: 500-503.

ALJ  = Ath Loṅkāśāh nuṃ Jīvan, of the Tapāgaccha Muni Kāntivijaya. Written in Pāṭaṇ in Saṃvat 1636 (1579/60). Published in Maṇilāl 1934: 161f.; Hastīmal 1995: 752-759.

DC  = Dayādharma Caupāī, of the Lauṃkāgacchīya Yati Bhānucandra. Saṃvat 1587 (1521/22). Published in Jṭānsundar 1936, Appendix 2, pp. 234-237.

DVS  = Dasaveyāliya (Daśavaikālika Sūtra), of Ārya Sayyaṃbhava. Edited by Ernst Leumann. And translated, with introduction and notes, by Walther Schubring. Ahmedabad: The Managers of the Sheth Anandji Kalianji, 1932. (Reprinted in: Kleine Schriften (ed. Klaus Bruhn): 109-248. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1977.) – Arya Sayyanbhava's Daśavaikālika Sūtra. Translation and Notes by Kastur Chand Lalwani. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1973.

J = Jinacariya. Translated by Hermann Jacobi as Lives of the Jinas. In: Sacred Books of the East, 22 (1884): 217-285.

K = Keha nī Paramparā Chaī?, of Loṅkā [?]. Ms. No. 2989, L.D. Institute, Ahmedabad. A Hindī variation is published in Jeṭhmal 1930: 14f. The original is published in: Mālvaṇiyā 1963a: 80-82; Vārīā 1976: 127-130 with a Gujarātī translation; Hastīmal 1995: 691-693; reprinted in Jain & Kumār 2003: 537-539, with a Hindī translation pp. 118120.

KS  = "Kaḍuā-Mat kī Sāmācārī", on the basis of Śāh Kalyāṇavijaya's Kaṭukamat Paṭṭāvalī. Saṃvat 1684 (1628/9). Translated by Dundas 1999: 21f. A slightly different extract was published by Muni Jṭānsundar (1936: 326-336) under the title Kaḍuā-Mat Paṭṭāvalī kā Sār.

L  = Luṅkā nā Aṭhāvana Bolo, of Loṅkā [?]. Ms. No. 2989, L.D. Institute, Ahmedabad. See also Mss. No. 19224 and 19225, Oriental Institute, Baroda; Ms. Rājagranthāsāra, Prācya Vidyāpīṭha, Śāhajāpura (photographic reproduction in: Jain & Kumār 2003, Pariśiṣṭa). Ms. No. 2989, L.D. Institute, published by Mālvaṇiyā 1963a: 52-82; Vārīā 1976: 1-127, with a Gujarātī translation; Hastīmal 1995: 655-691; reprinted in Jain & Kumār 2003: 403-537 with a Hindī summary pp. 124-139.

LH  = Luṅkā nī Huṇḍī Cauṃtīs Bol, of Loṅkā [?]. Ms. No. 4121, L.D. Institute, Ahmedabad. Extract (Loṅkāśāh ke Cauṃtīs Bol) in Hastīmal, 1995: 648-655; reprinted in Jain & Kumār 2003: 499-503, with a Hindī summary pp. 120-123.

LN  = "Loṅkā's Niyamāvali". In Gulābcand Nāncand Seṭh 1970: 703f.

LP  = Loṅkāgacchīya Paṭṭāvalī (Bābu Puraṇcandjī Nahār no Bhaṇḍār). In Koṭhārī 2001: 405-407. (First published in the Jain Śvetāmbara Conference Herald, April-June 1918, 169-171).

LS  = Loṅkāgaccha kī Sāmācārī. In Candanākumārī 1964: 102.

LTC  = Luṅkā n ū 13 nī Carcā, of Pārśvacandrasūri of the Pārśvacandragaccha. Ca. 16th century CE. Mss. No. 24466, 30565, L.D. Institute, Ahmedabad. Extract (Luṅkāe Pūchela 13 Praśna ane tenā Uttaro) in Hastīmal 1995: 694f.; reprinted in: Jain & Kumār 2003: 439-441, with a Hindī translation pp. 115-117.

PB  = Paiṃtīs Bol, of the Mūrtipūjaka Ācārya Ānandvīmalsūri. Saṃvat 1583 (1526/7). Published in Hastīmal 1995: 582-584.

PP = Pravacanaparīkṣā, of Upādhyāya Dharmasāgara, 1572/3. Surat: èṣabhadeva Keśaramalajī Śvetāmbara Saṃstha, 1937.

SC  = Siddhānta Caupāī, of the Mūrtipūjaka Muni Lāvaṇyasamaya. Saṃvat 1543 Kārtik śukla aṣṭamī (5.11.1486/7). Published in Jṭānsundar 1936, Appendix 1, pp. 209-227; Koṭhārī 2001: 486-499

SS  = Siddhānta Sāroddhāra [Caupāī], of the Kharataragaccha Upādhyāy Śrī Kamalsaṃyam. Saṃvat 1544 [1487]. Published in Jṭānsundar 1936, Appendix 1, pp. 228f; Koṭhārī 2001: 499-500.

Sūy  = Sūyagaḍa (Sūtrakṛtāṅga Sūtra). Translated by Hermann Jacobi. In: Sacred Books of the East, 45 (1895): 233-435

TPS  = Tapāgaccha Paṭṭāvalī Sūtraṃ, of Dharmasāgara. Saṃvat 1646 [1589/ 90]. Published in Darśanavijaya 1933: 41-119.

Viy  = Viyāhapannatti (Bhagavaī). The Fifth Anga of the Jaina Canon. Introduction, Critical Analysis, Commentary & Indexes. Brugge: Rijksuniversiteit de Gent, 1970.

òhāṇa = òhāṇa (Sthānāṅga). Mūla Pāṭha, Saṃskṛta Chāyā, Hindī Anuvāda tathā òippaṇa. Vācana Pramukha: Ācārya Tulsī. Sampādak-Vivecaka: Muni Nathmal. Lāḍnūn: Jaina Viśva Bhāratī, 1976.

Yś  = Yogaśāstra of Hemacandra. A Twelfth Century Handbook on Śvetāmbara Jainism. Translated by Olle Qvarnström. (Harvard Oriental Series, 61.) Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002. 

Secondary Sources

AISJC = Akhil Bhāratīya Sthānakavāsī Jaina Kānfrens (ed.), Akhil Bhāratvarṣīya Vardhamān Sthānakavāsī Jaina Śramaṇ Saṅghīya Samācārī. Compiled by Saubhāgyamuni "Kumud". Dillī: Akhil Bhāratīya Varddhamaṇ Sthānakavāsī Jaina Kānfrens, 1987.

AMARVIJAY, Muni (ed.) 1908. "ôhūṇḍhak Hṛday Netrāṭjanaṃ" athavā "Satyārtha Candrodayāṣṭakam". Amadāvād: Śrī Satyavijay Priṇṭing Pres māṃ, Śā. Sāṭkulcand Harīlāle Chāṣyuṃ.

AMOLAKèúI, Muni [Ācārya] 1908/1920. Jaina Tattva Prakāś. Duliya: Amola Jṭānālaya. (Fourth edition, Ahmednagar 1920.)

––––   1920. Śāstroddhara Mīmāṃsā. S ākandarābād: Jaina Śāstroddhara Mudrālaya.

ĀṬCALIYĀ, Dhansukhdās Hīrālāl (ed.) 1937. Śiśu Hit Śikṣa. Gaṅgāśahar: Dhansukhdās Hīrālāl Āṭcaliyā

ASSMANN, Jan 1987. Kanon und Zensur als kultursoziologische Kategorien. In: Aleida & Jan Assman (eds.), Kanon und Zensur. Beiträge zur Archäologie der literarischen Kommunikation, II: 100-112. Mṛnchen: Wilhelm Fink.

––––  2000. Religion und kulturelles Gedächtnis. Mṛnchen: C. H. Beck. (English version: Cultural Memory. Ten Studies. Transl. by R. Livingstone. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006.)

Ātmānand Jain Sabhā Paṭjāb 1909. "ôhūṇḍhakmat Parājay arthāt Phaislā Śāstrārthanāmā" tathā "Phaislā Samānā Ilākā Mahārājā Paṭiyālā". Lahaur: Ātmānand Jain Sabhā Paṭjāb kī Ājṭā se Ātmānand Pustak Pracār Maṇḍal ke Janral Sakreṭarī Ajmer ke Seṭh Hīrācandjī Secetī ne Chapdhāyā. (Tṛtīyā Vṛtti. Lahaur: Jasvantrāy Jaini, 1906.)

ĀTMĀRĀM, Ācārya (Vijayānanda Sūri) 1881/1954. Jainatattvādarśa. Bhāg 1 & 2. Ed. Banārsīdās Jain. Paṭcam Saṃskaraṇ. Bambaī: Śrī Ātmānand Jaina Sabhā.

––––   1884/1903. Śrī Samyaktva Śalyoddhāra. Third edition. Hindustānī translation of the Gujarātī original. Lahore: Śrī Ātmānand Jaina Sabhā Paṭjāb.

––––   1884/1908. Śrī Samyaktva Śalyoddhāra Dohā ôhūṇḍhak Mat ke Śalya ko Dūrakare Niradhāra Satya Nāmaim Grantha kā Samākita Śalyoddhāra. Dillī: Ātmānand Jain Pustak Pracār Maṇḍal.

––––   1888/1906. Ajṭāna-timira-bhāskara. Bhāvnagar: Jaina Dharma Hitecchu Sabhā. (With the exception of the Prastāvanā to the 1st edition, cited after the 2nd edition of the Jaina Ātmānand Sabhā in Bhāvnagar, 1906).

ĀTMĀRĀM, Ācārya [1888-90] 1916. Praśnottara-saṃgraha (Śrīmad-Vijayānanda-Sūrīśvarāj (Ātmārāmjī) Mahārājajī Kalkattā Esīāṭīk Sosāiṭī nā Sekreṭarī ôaṃkṭar Hornla nā Praśno nā āpelā Uttaro). Bhāvnagar: Jaina Ātmānand Sabhā Taraph thī Bhāvsār Gāṇḍālāl Māncand

––––   1893/1900a. Jainamata Vṛkṣa. Second revised edition. Ed. Muni Vallabhvijay. Amadāvād: Śrī Ātmārām Jaina Sabhā Paṭjāb.

––––   1895/1902. Tattvanirṇayaprāsāda: 36 Stambha. Samśodhankarttā: Muni Vallabh Vijay. Prasiddhakarttā: Amarcand P. Parmār. Mumbaī: Induprakāś Jāīṭasṭāṃk Kaṃ. Lī. meṃ chāpkar prasiddha kiyā

––––   1900b. Īsāī Mat Samīkṣā. Bambaī: Jaina Jṭāna Prasārak Maṇḍal.

ĀTMĀRĀM, Upādhyāy 1914. Śrīmad Jainācārya Śrī 1008 Amarasiṅha kā Jīvan Caritra. Lāhaur: Paṭjāb Ekāntomīkal Yantrālay.

––––  1942. Sthānakavāsī. Ludhiyānā: Lālā Valāyatī Rām Kastūrī Lāl Jain.

BAGASARĀVĀìĀ, Rāma Deva Maḍīā 1894. Loṅkāgacchotpatti ane Mahārāja Śrīpūjya Bhaṭṭāraka Kalyāṇa Candrajī Surīśvarjī nuṃ Jīvana Caritra. Mumbaī Ghī Royal Prīṇṭīṅg Pres Bāhārakoṭa Bhājīpālā Len. (Reprinted with additions as Loṅkāgacchotpatti ane Upāśraya nā Praṇetā Pūjya Ācārya Śrī Kalyāṇacandrajī S ūriśvarjī nuṃ J īvana Caritra. Mumbaī: Śrī Mumbaī Loṅkāgaccha Jaina Saṅgha. Upāśraya nā Śatābdi Mahotsava Prasaṅge Sabhāsado ne Bheṭa, 11.3.2001.)

BALBIR, Nalini 1993. Āvaśyaka-Studien, I: Introduction générale et traductions. (Alt- und Neuindische Studien, 45.1.) Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag

––––   2001. La question de l'ordination des enfants en milieu jaina. In: Christine Chojnacki (ed.), Les âges de la vie dans le monde Indien: 153-182. Paris: Diffusion de Boccard

––––   2002/2003a. Samayasundara's Sāmācārī-Śataka. In: Piotr Balcerowicz (ed.), Caturaranayacakram. Essays in Jaina Philosophy and Religion: 253-277. (First Indian edition: Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.)

––––   2003b. The A(ṭ)calagaccha viewed from inside and from outside. In: Olle Qvarnström (ed.), Jainism and Early Buddhism. Essays in Honor of Padmanabh S. Jaini: 47-77. Fremont: Asian Humanities Press

BHAöôĀRĪ, Kesarīcand 1938. Sthānakavāsī Jaina Itihās. Amadāvād: Śrī Sthānakavāsī Jaina Kāryālay

BHĀRILL, Śobhācandra (ed.) 1965. Muni Śrī Hajārīmal Smṛti Granth. Byāvar: Muni Śrī Hajārīmal Smṛti Granth Prakāśan Samiti

BLOCH, Maurice. 1977/1989. The past and the present in the present. In: Ritual, History and Power. Selected Papers in Anthropology: 1-18. London: The Athlone Press.

BOURDIEU, Pierre 1980/1992. The Logic of Practice. Translated by Richard Nice. London: Polity Press

BRUHN, Klaus 1981. Āvaśyaka-Studies I. In: Klaus Bruhn & Albrecht Wezler (eds.), Studien zum Jainismus und Buddhismus (Gedenkschrift fṛr Ludwig Alsdorf): 11-49. Universität Hamburg: Steiner Verlag

––––  1983. Repetition in Jain narrative literature. Indologica Taurinensia 11: 27-75.

––––  1987. Das Kanonproblem bei den Jainas. In: Aleida & Jan Assmann (eds.), Kanon und Zensur. Beiträge zur Archäologie der literarischen Kommunikation, II: 100-112. Mṛnchen: Wilhelm Fink

BUDHMAL, Muni. Terāpanth kā Itihās. Dvitīya Khaṇḍ. Saṃpādak: Muni Sumeramal 'Sudarśan' & Muni Mohanlāl 'Śārdūl'. Calcutta: Jain Śvetāmbar Terāpanth Mahāsabhā Prakāśan, 2001

BŪòERĀY, Muni 1878. Muhapatti Viṣe Cārcā. Racnār Śuddha Mārg nā Rāgī Śrī Būṭerāyjī Mahārāj Temnā Carītra Sāthe. Amadāvād: Māṇekcok āgal Kāgadīol nā s āme Śā. Hīrābhāi Puṭjāsānā Makān māṃ Amadāvād òāims Pres māṃ Kālīdās Sāṅkalcand chāpī prasiddha karī.

CANDANĀKUMĀRĪ, Mahāsatī 1964. Hamārā Itihās. Sthānakavāsī ŚramaṇSāṃskṛtik Paramparā k ā Paricāyak. Sampādak: Ācārya Śrī Amṛtkumār. Ahmadnagar: Śrī Tilok Ratna Sthānakavāsī Jaina Dhārmik Parīkṣā Borḍ.

CARRITHERS, Michael 1990. Jainism and Buddhism as enduring historical streams. Journal of the Anthropological Society of Oxford 21.2: 141163.

––––  2000, On polytropy: Or the natural condition of spiritual cosmopolitanism in India: The Digambar Jain case. Modern Asian Studies 34.4: 831-861.

CARRITHERS, Michael & Caroline HUMPHREY (eds.) 1991. The Assembly of Listeners. Jains in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

CAUDHARĪ, Kastūrcand Sūrajmal (ed.) 1936? Jinjṭān Ratnākar. Kalkattā: Mahāland Bayed "Osvāl Pres".

CHOPRA, Chogmal 1937/1945. A Short History of the Terapanthi Sect of the Swetambar Jains and its Tenets. 4th Edition. Calcutta: Sri Jain Swetamber Terapanthi Sabha.

CORT, John E. 1989. Liberation and Wellbeing. A Study of the Mūrtipūjak Jains of North Gujarat. Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University.

––––   1990. Models of and for the study of the Jains. Method & Theory in the Study of Religion 2.1: 42-71.

––––   1991. The Śvetāmbar Mūrtipūjak Jain mendicant. Man (N.S.) 26: 651671.

––––   1995. Genres of Jain history. Journal of Indian Philosophy 23: 469506.

CORT, John E. 2001. Jains in the World. Religious Values and Ideology in India. New York: Oxford University Press.

DALMIA, Vasudha, Angelika MALINAR & Martin CHRISTOF (eds.) 2001/2003. Charisma & Canon. Essays on the Religious History of the Indian Subcontinent. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

DARŚANAVIJAYA, Muni (col.) 1933. Paṭṭāvalī Samuccayaþ. Prathamo Bhāgaþ. Vīramgām: Cāritra Smārak Granthamālā. (Reprinted by the Jinaśāsana Ārādhanā òrusṭ in Mumbaī in 1996.)

DAYANAND Sarasvati, Svami 1882/1908. Satyartha Prakash. Translated into English by Durga Prasad. Lahore: Virjanand Press.

DEŚĀĪ, Mohanlāl Dalīcand 1926-44. Jaina Gūrjar Kavio. Mumbaī: Jaina Śvetāmbara Conference Office (Second edition: Sampādak: Jayant Koṭhārī. Bhāg 1-5. Mumbaī: Śrī Mahāvīra Jaina Vidyalaya, 1988.)

ôOŚĪ, Ratanlāl 1939. Loṅkāśāh Mat-Samarthan. Hindī Anuvād. Jodhpur: Jaina Ratna Pustakālay. (Hindī translation of Jīvaṇlāl Bhāī's Gujarātī translation of lost Hindī original revised by the author.) (Reprint Byāvar: Akhil Bhāratīya Sudharma Jaina Saṃskṛti Rakṣak Saṅgh, Jodhpur, 2002.)

DUGGAR, Hīrālāl 1989. Madhya Eśiyā aur Paṭjāb meṃ Jainadharma. Dillī: Jaina Prācīn Sāhitya Prakāśan Mandir.

DUNDAS, Paul 1993. The marginal monk and the true tīrtha. In: Rudy Smet & Kenji Watanabe (eds.), Jain Studies in Honour of Jozef Deleu: 237259. Tokyo: Hon-no-Tomosha.

––––   1996. Somnolent sūtras: Scriptural commentary in Śvetāmbara Jainism. Journal of Indian Philosophy 24: 73-101.

––––   1998. Becoming Gautama: Mantra and history in Śvetāmbara Jainism. In: John E. Cort (ed.), Open Boundaries. Jain Communities and Culture in Indian History: 31-52. Albany: SUNY.

––––   1999. Jainism without monks? The case of Kaḍuā Śāh. In: N. K. Wagle & O. Qvarnström (eds.), Approaches to Jain Studies. Philosophy, Logic, Rituals and Symbols: 19-35. Toronto: University of Toronto, Center for South Asian Studies.

––––  2001. History in future mode: A nineteenth century Digambara Jain prophetic text. In: Jayendra Soni (ed.), Vasantagauravam. Essays in Jainism: 51-72. Mumbai: Vakils, Feffer & Simons.

––––  2002. The Jains. Second revised edition. London: Routledge.

FARQUHAR, J. N. 1915. Modern Religious Movements in India. New York: Macmillan.

FLÜGEL, Peter 1995-96. The ritual circle of the Terāpanth Śvetāmbara Jains. Bulletin d'Études Indiennes 13: 117-176.

FLÜGEL, Peter 2000. Protestantische und Post-Protestantische Jaina-Reformbewegungen: Zur Geschichte und Organisation der Sthānakavāsī I. Berliner Indologische Studien 13/14: 37-103.

––––   2003a. Protestantische und Post-Protestantische Jaina-Reformbewegungen: Zur Geschichte und Organisation der Sthānakavāsī II. Berliner Indologische Studien 15/16/17: 149-240. (Also published on line:

––––   2003b. The codes of conduct of the Terāpanth Samaṇ order. South Asia Research 23.1: 7-53.

––––   2005. The invention of Jainism: A short history of Jaina studies. Journal of Jaina Studies (Kyoto) 11: 1-19. (Also: International Journal of Jain Studies 1,

––––, forthcoming (a). Protestantische und Post-Protestantische Jaina-Reformbewegungen: Zur Geschichte und Organisation der Sthānakavāsī III. Berliner Indologische Studien 18.

––––, forthcoming (b). Protestantische und Post-Protestantische Jaina-Reformbewegungen: Zur Geschichte und Organisation der Sthānakavāsī IV.

––––, forthcoming (c). The Loṅkāgaccha revisited. Paper presented at the 12th World Sanskrit Conference in Helsinki, July 2003, and at the 6th Jaina Studies Workshop at SOAS, March 2004.

GADAMER, Hans-Georg 1960/1990. Wahrheit und Methode. Grundzṛge einer philosophischen Hermeneutik. Tṛbingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck).

GHĀSĪLĀL, Ācārya 1983. Śrī Loṃkāśāha Caritam. Niyojaka: Muni Kanhaiyālāl. Ahmadāvād: Akhila Bhāratīya Śvetāmbara Sthānakavāsī Jaina Śāstradvāra Samiti Pramukha Baladevabhāī ôosābhāī Paṭel.

GLASENAPP, H. von. 1925. Der Jainismus – Eine Indische Erlösungsreligion. (Kultur und Weltanschauung, 1.) Berlin: A. Hager.

GOMBRICH, Richard 1988. Theravāda Buddhism. A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

GOONASEKERE, Ratna Sunilsantha Abhayawardana 1986. Renunciation and Monasticism among the Jainas of India. Ph.D. dissertation. San Diego: University of California.

GRANOFF, Phyllis 1991. The politics of religious biography: The biography of Balibhadra the Usurper. Bulletin d'Études Indiennes 9: 75-91.

––––   1993. Going by the Book: The role of written texts in medieval Jain sectarian conflicts. In: R. Smet & K. Watanabe (eds.), Jain Studies in Honour of Jozef Deleu: 315-338. Tokyo: Hon-no-Tomosha.

GUöSUNDAR, Muni 1938. Ādarś Jṭān. Śrīmān Jṭānsundarjī Mahārāj Sāhib kā Ādarś-Jīvan. Bhāg 1-2. Jodhpur (?).

HASTĪMAL, Ācārya 1968. Paṭṭāvalī Prabandh Saṅgrah. Ed. Narendra Bhanawat. Jaypur: Jaina Itihāsa Nirmāṇ Samiti.

––––   1971. Jaina Ācārya Caritāvalī (Jaina Ācārya Paramparā kā Kāvyabaddha Rūpa). Ed. Gajasiṅha Rāṭhoṛ. Jaypur: Jaina Itihās Samiti

––––   1987/1995. Jaina Dharma kā Maulik Itihās, IV. Jaypur: Jaina Itihās Samiti. 

JACOBI, Hermann 1880. Das Kālakācārya-Kathānakam. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 34: 247-298.

JAIN, Jiyālāl 1893. Carcā Candroday Bhāg Tisrā. Ahmadāvād: Yuniyan Priṇṭiṅg.

JAIN, Jyotindra & Eberhard FISCHER 1978. Jaina Iconography, I-II. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

JAIN, Kamleś Kumār 2003. Jaina Uddharaṇa Kośa. Bhāg I. Dillī: Bhogīlāl Leharcand Bhāratīya Saṃskṛti Saṃsthān.

JAIN, Mohanlāl 1892. Durvād Mukh-Capeṭikā. Lāhaur: Eṅglo Saṃskṛt Yantrālay.

JAIN, Pannālāl L. 1913/1923. Jainācārya Śrī 1008 Śrīmatī Pārvatījī ke Jīvan Caritra. Pratham Bhāg & Dvitīya Bhāg. Hindī Anuvād: Dayācandra Jain. Lāhaur: Candra Lakhanpāl. (1st Edition in Urdū.)

JAIN, Sāgarmal & Vijay KUMĀR 2003. Sthānakavāsī Jaina Paramparā kā Itihās. Vārāṇasī: Pārśvanāth Vidyāpīṭh

JAIN, Śrīnāth Modī 1929. Muni Śrī Jṭānsundarjī. Jodhpur: Rājasthān Sundar Sāhitya Sadan.

JAYDAYĀL, Lālā, n.d. ôhuṇḍhak Mat Samīkṣā. (Photocopy without bibliographic references.)

JEòHMAL, Muni 1882/1930. Samakit-Sār I-II. Prabodhak: Tapasvīrāj Śrī Devjīṛṣi. Prakāśak: Śrīmān Sardārmal Pugaliā, Nāgpur, Śrīmān Ratanlāl Pīrcand Pārasevanī evam Barār Jaina Śrīmān. Caturtha Saṃskaraṇ. Hindī Anuvād: Rastabcand. Ratlām: Jainoday Pustak Prakāśak Samiti

JHAUHARĪ, Durlabh Trībhuvan. 1922/1923. Śrīlāljī Mahārāj kā Sacitra Jīvancaritra. Morvī-Jaipur: Durlabh Trībhuvan Jhauharī.

JṬĀNSUNDAR, Muni 1936. Śrīmad Lauṃkāśāh. Phalodī: Śrī Jṭān Puṣpamālā.

KĀNTISĀGAR, Muni 1965. Śrī Loṅkāśāh kī Paramparā aur uskā Ajṭāt Sāhitya. In: Śobhācandra Bhārill (ed.), Muni Śrī Hajārīmal Smṛti Granth: 214253. Byāvar: Muni Śrī Hajārīmal Smṛti Granth Prakāśan Samiti.

KĀPAôIĀ, Hīrālāl Rasikdās. A History of the Canonical Literature of the Jainas. Surat: Hiralal Rasikdas Kapadia, 1941. (Reprint: Ahmedabad: Shree Shwetambar Murtipujak Jaina Boarding, 2000.)

KELTING, Mary Whitney 2001. Singing to the Jinas. Jain Laywomen, Maṇḍal Singing, and the Negotiations of Jain Devotion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

KHĀN, Ālamśāh 1965. Loṅkāgaccha kī Sāhitya-Sevā. In: Śobhācandra Bhārill (ed.), Muni Śrī Hajārīmal Smṛti Granth: 203-213. Byāvar: Muni Śrī Hajārīmal Smṛti Granth Prakāśan Samiti.

KIRAöYAŚĀSTRĪ, Mahārāj 1999. Śrī Vijayānandjī ke Vāḍam kā Vihaṅgāvalokaṇa. Baṛaudā: Mahilā Jaina Upāśray

KLATT, Johannes 1888. Eine apokryphe Paṭṭāvalī der Jainas. In: Festgruss an Otto von Böhtlingk zum Doktor-Jubiläum 3. Februar 1888 von seinen Freunden: 54-59. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer.

––––   Onomasticon. Bound copy. 8 vols. Hamburg: Institut fṛr Indologie und Tibetologie.

KOòHĀRĪ, Jayant 2001. Prācīn Madhyakālīn Sāhitya Samgraha (Mohanlāl Dalīcand Desāī Sampādit Laghukṛti Saṃgraha). Ahmedabad: L.D. Institute of Indology. [See AB, LP, SC and SS under Primary sources.]

KUNDANMAL, Muni 1908. Pragaṭ Jain Pītāmbarī Mūrtipūjakoṃ kā Mithyātva. Amarāvatī. Mūlcand Jugrāj. (The short stavan is reprinted in Amarvijay 1908: 34-36.)

––––, n.d. Ātmārām Saṃvegī k ī Karttūt, Ātmārām kī Ādāt kā Namūnā. Ambālā: Paṇḍit Bhīmasena.

LAIDLAW, James 1985. Profit, salvation and profitable saints. Cambridge Anthropology 9.3: 50-70.

––––   1995. Riches and Renunciation. Religion, Economy, and Society among the Jains. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

LĀLAS, Padmaśrī Sītārām (ed.) 1986-87. Rājasthānī-Hindī Saṅkṣipt Śabda Koś, I-II. Rājasthān Purātan Granthamālā. Prabandh Sampādak: Padmadhar Pāṭhak. Jodhpur: Rājasthān Prācyavidyā Pratiṣṭhān.

LESLIE, Julia 2003. Authority and Meaning in Indian Religions. Hinduism and the Case of Vālmīki. Hants: Ashgate.

LEUMANN, Ernst 1934. Ṛbersicht ṛber die Āvaśyaka Literatur. Aus dem Nachlass herausgegeben von Walther Schubring. (Alt- und Neuindische Studien, 4.) Hamburg: De Gruyter.

MĀDHAV, Muni 1908. Taraṅgiṇī Dvitīyā Taraṅg. Āgrā. (Reprinted in Amarvijay 1908: 31-34.)

MAHĀPRAJṬA, Ācārya 2000. Jainism and Its Philosophical Foundations. New Delhi: Anmol Publications.

MALUKCAND, Anūpcand 1908. "Praśnottara-ratna-cintāmaṇī" aur "Aṭhārah Dūṣaṇa-nivāraka". Ahmadābād: Rāy Bahādur Bābu Buddhasiṅghjī.

MĀLVAöIYĀ, Dalsukhbhāī 1963a. Śrī Loṅkāśāh nī ek Kṛti. Svādhyāya 2.1: 5082.

––––   1963b. Śrī Lokāśāh ane temnā Mat. Svādhyāya 2.2: 143-155.

––––   1964. Lokāśāh aur unkī Vicār-Dhārā. In: Vijay Muni Śāstri & Harīśankar Śarmā (eds.), Gurudev Śrī Ratna Muni Smṛti-Granth: 365383. Āgrā: Gurudev Smṛti Granth Prakāśak Samiti.

––––   1965. Loṅkāśāh Mat kī Do Pothiyāṃ. In: Śobhācandra Bhārill (ed.), Muni Śrī Hajārīmal Smṛti Granth: 184-188. Byāvar: Muni Śrī Hajārīmal Smṛti Granth Prakāśan Samiti.

MAöILĀL, Muni 1934. Śrī Jaina Dharma no Prācīn Saṅkṣipt Itihās ane Prabhu Vīr Paṭṭāvalī. Amadāvād: Jīvaṇlāl Chaganlāl Saṅghvī.

METTE, Adelheid 1974. Piṇḍ'esaṇā. Das Kapitel der Oha-Nijjutti ṛber den Bettelgang ṛbersetzt und kommentiert. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner.

MIŚRĪMAL, Mantrī Muni "Marudhar Kesarī" 1936. Dharmavīr Loṅkāśāh. òāṇṭoṭī/Ajmer: Jaina Śvetāmbara Sthānakavāsī Sakal Śrī Saṅgh òāṇṭoṭī.

––––   1941. Krāntikārī Vīr Loṅkāśāh. Jodhpur Sṭeṭ: Jaina Buddhavīr Smārak Maṇḍal.

––––   1946. Vīr Loṅkāśāh. Prakāśak: Śāh Mukancand Nemīcand Bahorā Jain. Jodhpur: Jaina Buddhavīr Smārak Maṇḍal.

NAHAR, Puran Chand. 1918/1983. Jaina Inscriptions. Delhi: Indian Book Gallery.

NĀHAòĀ, Agarcand 1958. Kaḍuā Mat kī Mānyatāoṃ par Prakāś. Jaina Bhāratī 6.2: 19f.

––––   1964. Uttarārdha Gaccha. Jaina Bhāratī 12.9.

––––   1966. Nāgorī Loṅkāgaccha ke Sthāpak Hīrāsāh aur Rūpcand. Jinavāṇī 15: 2-4.

––––   1968. Bhūmikā. In: Ācārya Hastīmal, Paṭṭāvalī Prabandh Saṅgrah (Ed. Narendra Bhanawat): 33-39. Jaypur: Jaina Itihāsa Nirmāṇ Samiti.

NĀHAòĀ, Bhanvarlāl 1957. Luṅkāśāh aur unke Anuyāyī. In: Agarcand Nāhaṭā et al. (eds.), Śrīmad Rājendrasūri Smārak Granth: 470-477. Āhora tathā Bāgarā (Mārvāṛ): Śrī Saudharmabṛhattapāgacchīya Jaina Śvetāmbara Śrī Saṅgh.

NĀHAòĀ, Kuṃvar Lālcandra "Taruṇ". 1968. Lauṃkāśāh: Vyaktitva aur Vicār. In: Śobhācandra Bhārill (ed.), Marudhar Kesarī Muni Miśrīmaljī Mahārāj Abhinandan Granth: 159-168. Jodhpur: Marudhar Kesarī Abhinandan Granth Prakāśan Samiti.

NAIR, V. G. 1970. Jainism and Terehpanthism. Bangalore: Shri Adinath Jain Svetambar Temple, 1970.

PĀRVATĪ, Mahāsatī 1905a. "Satyārtha-Candroday Jaina" arthāt "Mithyātva Timir-Nāśak". Jis ko Sanātan Satya Jaina Dharmopadeśikā B āl Brahmacāriṇī Jaināryyājī Śrī Mahāsatī Pārvatījī ne banāyā. Lāhaur: Lālā Meharcandra Lakṣmīdās Śrāvak.

––––   1905b. "Samyaktva Sūryoday Jaina" arthāt "Mithyātva Timir Nāśak". Jis ko Jainācāryya Paṭjābī Śrī 1008 Śrī Parampūjya Amarasiṅhajī k ī Sampradāya meṃ Sanātan Satya Jaina Dharmopadeśikā Bāl Brahmacāriṇī Jainācāryyājī Śrīmat Śrī 1008 Satījī Śrī Pārvatījī ne banāyā. Hośīārpur: Lālā Kṛpārām Koṭūmal Śrāvak. (Second edition: Rohtak: Jyotrām Seṭh kī Dharmapatnī Lā. Śerasiṅha.)

PRAKĀŚCANDRA, Muni 1998. Ā Che Aṇagār Amārā. Mumbaī: Śrī Naval Sāhitya Prakāśan Maṇḍal.

PUúKARMUNI, Upādhyāy 1977. Jain Dharma meṃ D ān. Ek Samīkṣātmak Adhyayan. Sampādak: Devendramuni & Śrīcand Surānā 'Sarat'. Agra: Śrī Tārakguru Jaina Granthālay.

QVARNSTRÖM, Olle 1998. Stability and adaptability: A Jain strategy for survival and growth. Indo-Iranian Journal 41: 33-55.

ŚĀH, Praviṇcand Tulsīdās 2001. Dharma Priya Krāntivīr Lokāśāh nuṃ J īvan Caritra (Saṅkṣep). Mumbaī: Śrī Mumbaī Loṅkāgaccha Jaina Saṅgha.

ŚĀH, Vāḍīlāl Motīlāl 1909. Śrī Sādhumārgī Jaina Dharmānuyāyīoe Jāṇvā Jog Keṭalīk Aitihāsik Noṃdh. Amadāvād: "Jaina Samācār".

––––   1925. Aitihāsik Noṃdh. Hindī Anuvād, Mulatānmal Hīrācand Dhārīvāl. Ratan Rāypur C. P.: Jaina Pāṭhśālā ke Sahāya Tīrth.

SARLĀ, Sādhvī 1991. Sthānakvāsī Paṭjāb Sampradāy kī Pramukha Sādhviyāṃ. [Extract of: Sādhanā Path kī Amar Sāhikā.] In: Hīrābāī Boradiyā, Jainadharma kī Pramukh Sādhviyāṃ evaṃ Mahilāeṃ: 298-304. Sampādak: Sāgarmal Jain. Vārāṇasī: Pārśvanāth Vidyāśram Śodha Saṃsthān.

ŚĀSTRĪ, Hansrāj 1915. Svāmī Dayānand aur Jainadharma. Gopipura/Surat: Paṇḍit Hansrāj Śāstrī.

SAUBHĀGYACANDRA, Muni "Santabāëa" 1939. Dharmaprāṇ-Loṅkāśāh (Krānti no Yugasṛṣṭā). Amadāvād: Sthānakavāsī Jaina Kāryālay. (First published in Jaina Prakāś 1935.)

SCHUBRING, Walther 1935/2000. Die Lehre der Jainas. Nach der alten Quellen dargestellt. (Grundriss der Indo-Arischen Philologie und Altertumskunde, 3.7.) Berlin: Walter De Gruyter & Co. [Cited after the English translation: The Doctrine of the Jainas. Described after the Old Sources. Transl. Wolfgang Beurlen. 3rd English edition. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.]

––––   1944. Die Jaina-Handschriften der Preussischen Staatsbibliothek. Leipzig: Otto Harrassowitz.

SCHUBRING, Walther 1957. Kundakunda echt und unecht. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 107: 537-574.

SEòH, Gulābcand Nāncand 1970. Jaydhvaj. Pūjya Ācārya Jaymaljī Mahārāj kā Jīvan Caritra. Madrās: Jaydhvaj Prakāśan Samiti.

ŚEòH, Nagīndās Girdharlāl 1962. Mūë Jaina Dharma ane Hāl nā Sampradāyo. Mumbaī: Jaina Siddhānta Sabhā.

––––   (ed.) 1963. Sthānakavāsī Jaino nuṃ Dharma Kartavya. Satya Dharma Samāj vā Icchanāra ne Māṭe Ja. Jaina Siddhānta Granthamāëā Aṅko 49 Mo. Mumbaī: Jaina Siddhānta Sabhā (Rajīsṭarḍ) nī Vatī Śeṭh Nagīndās Girdharlāl. [Includes chapters 7-13 and 22-26 of Śeṭh's Mūë Jaina Dharma ane Hāl nā Sampradāyo: E Pustak māṃ n ā Ahīṃ Umerelā Mūrti ne Lagtā Prakaraṇo.]

––––  1964. Loṅkāśāh ane Dharmacarcā.

SHAH, Umakant Premanand 1955a. Studies in Jaina Art. Varanasi: Pārśvanātha Vidyāpīṭha.

––––   1955b. A forgotten chapter in the history of the Svetambara Jaina church, or, a documentary epigraph from Mount Satrunjaya. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bombay 30: 100-113.

SHĀNTĀ, N. 1985/1997. La voie Jaina. histoire, spiritualité, vie des ascètes pèlerines de l'Inde. Paris: O.E.I.L. (English version: The Unknown Pilgrims. The Voice of the Sādhvīs: The History, Spirituality and Life of the Jaina Women Ascetics. Transl. by M. Rogers. (Sri Garib Dass Oriental Series, 219.) Delhi: Shri Satguru Publications, 1997.)

SMITH, Wilfred Cantwell. 1962/1991. The Meaning and End of Religion. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

SURĀNĀ, Śrīcand "Saras" 1976. Mahāprajṭa Pravartak Śrī Pannālāljī Mahārāj. Jīvan, Vyaktitva aur Kṛtitva. Vijaynagar/Rājasthān: Śrī Prajṭa Jaina Smārak Samiti.

SUŚĪLKUMĀR, Ācārya 1959. Jainadharma kā Itihās (Pramukhtaṛ Śrī Śvetāmbara Sthānakavāsī Jainadharma kā Itihās). Kalkattā: Samyag JṭānMandir.

UJAMCAND, Rikhabcand (Mumbaī) 1909. Sthānakavāsī Sādhumārgī Satyatā Ūpar Kuhāḍo. Urphe. Bhī. Vāḍīlāl-kṛt Aitihāsik Khoṭī Noṃdh Upar òīkā. Bhāg 1. Amadāvād: Eṅglo Varnākyular Priṇṭīṅg.

VALLABHVIJAY, Muni (ed.) 1891. ôhuṇḍṛak-hita-śikṣā Apanām Gappa-dīpikāsamīr. Amadāvād: Śrī Jainadharma Prasārak Sanā. Nāvnagar.

––––   1902. Tapāgaccha Ācārya Śrīmad Vijayānandasūriśvarjī Prasiddha nām Ātmārāmjī Mahārājjī Jainī Sādhu kā Janmacaritra. In: Ācārya Ātmārām (Vijayānanda Sūri), Tattvanirṇayaprāsāda: 36 Stambha: 33-83. Samśodhankarttā: Muni Vallabh Vijay. Prasiddhakarttā: Amarcand P. Parmār. Mumbaī: Induprakāś Jāīṭasṭāṃk Kaṃ. Lī. meṃ Chāpkar Prasiddha kiyā.

––––   1909. Javābdāvā. Jain Samācār ôhūṇḍhak Patrādhipati kī Pūkār kā Javāb. Written in Pālaṇpur, Gujarāt. Lāhaur: Jasvantrāy Jaini.

––––   1996. Navyug Nirmātā (Nyāyāmbhonidhi Ācārya Śrīmad Vijayānand Sūri (Ātmārāmjī) Mahārāj kī Jīvan Gāthā). Dvitīya Saṃskaraṇ. Pāvāgaḍh Tīrtha: Vijayānand Sūri Sāhitya Prakāśan Phāuṇḍeśan.

Varddhamāna Sthānakavāsī Jaina Śrāvaka Saṅgha, Jaypur (ed.) 1964. Ajmer Śikhar Sammelan meṃ Saṃśodhit evaṃ Pārit – Varddhamān Sthānakavāsī Jaina Śramaṇ Saṅgh ke Prastāv, Vidhān evaṃ S āmācārī. Jaypur: Mantrī, Varddhamāna Sthānakavāsī Jaina Śrāvaka Saṅgha

VĀRĪĀ, Ratanśī 1976. Dharma Prāṇ Śrī Loṅkāśāh nā Aṭṭhāvan Bol. Jāmnagar: Lālbāg (Ratanśī Vārīā).

WEBER, Albrecht 1882. Ṛber den Kupakshakauṛikāditya des Dharmasāgara. Streitschrift eines orthodoxen Jaina, vom Jahre 1573. In: Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 37: 793-814.

WILLIAMS, Ronald. 1963/1983: Jaina Yoga. A Survey of the Medieval Śrāvakācāras. London: Oxford University Press.

WUJASTYK, Dominik 1984. The spikes in the ears of an ascetic: an illustrated tale in Brahmanism and Jainism. Oriental Art (N.S.) 30: 189-194.


Keha nī Paramparā Chai – Text in Old Gujarātī[304]

paramparā likhīiṃ chaiṃ, ketalā eka ima kahai chai śrī vīra nī paramparā ima kahai chai, te kihāṃ chai.[305]

1. ghariṃ pratimā ghaḍāvī maṇḍāvai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?[306] – celā celī vecānā leī teha keha nī paramparā chai?[307]

2. nānhā chokarā nai[308] dīkṣā dii chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

3. nāma[309] pheravai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

4. kāṃna vadhārai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

5. khamāsamāsaṇa[310] viharai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

6. gṛhastha (nī) gharaiṃ baisī[311] viharai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

7. dīhāḍī dīhāḍī[312] 2 teṇai[313] ghariṃ viharai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

8. aṅghola[314]kahai[315] kare,[316] te keha nī paramparā chai?

9. jyotiṣa nai marma prajuṃjai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

10. kalavāṇī karī āpai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

11. nagara māhiṃ paisatā paiṃ sāru sāhamuṃ karāvai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

12. lāḍūā pratiṣṭai[317] chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

13. pothī pūjāvai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

14. saṅghapūjā karavai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

15. pratiṣṭā karai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

16. pajūsaṇaiṃ pothī āpai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

17. tathā yātrā vecai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

18. tathā mātra āpai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

19. tathā ghāṭaḍī donuṃ toraṇa[318] bāṃghai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

20. ādhākarma posāliṃ rahai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

21. siddhānta prabhāvanā pākhai na vāṃcai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

22. māṇḍavī karāvai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

23. gautama paḍagho[319] karāvai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

24. saṃsāra-tāraṇa karāvai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

25. candanabālā nu tapa karāvai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

26. sonā rūpā nī nīsaraṇī karāvai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

27. lākhāpaḍavi karāvai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

28. ūjamaṇā[320] ḍhovarāvai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

29. pūja pūḍhāiṃ chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

30. āsovṛkṣa bharāvi[321] chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

31. aṭṭhottarī sanātra karāvi chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

32. navā ghāna navā phala pratimā āgali ḍhoi chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

33. śrāvaka-śrāvikā nai māthai vāsa ghālai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

34. parigraha ḍhūṇḍha māṃ bāṃdhai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

35. śrāvaka pāīṃ mūṇḍakuṃ apāvī ḍuṅgara caḍhāvī[322] chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

36. mālāropaṇa karai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

37. padīka śrāvaka śrāvikā suṃ bhelī jāiṃ chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

38. nāndi maṇḍāvai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

39. padīka cāṅka bāṃdhai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

40. pāṇi māhiṃ bhūko[323] muṃkai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

41. vāndaṇā divarāvai[324] chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

42. oghā pheravai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

43. devadravya rākhai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

44. pagai lāgai nīcī pacheḍī oḍhai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

45. sūrimantra leiīṃ iṃ chai,[325] te keha nī paramparā chai?

46. dīhāḍī sūrimantra gaṇai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

47. kalapaḍā ṭhaṭai[326] chaiṃ, te keha nī paramparā chai ūjalā?

48. pajūsaṇa māhiṃ bairakanhai tap karāvai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

49. ghaḍūlā karāvai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

50. āṃbila nī olī siddhacakra nī karāvai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

51. mahātamā nāla[327] karā pachī te ūṭhamaṇuṃ karai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

52. pratimā jhūlaṇuṃ[328] karāvai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

53. padīka āgali ṭhavaṇī[329]māṇḍai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?

54. pajūsaṇa parva nai cauthaiṃ[330] paḍikamai chai, te keha nī paramparā chai?


Loṅkā's assertions according to Candanākumārī 1964 in Hindī  

1. āgam-sammat ṭīkāoṃ ko hī prāmāṇik mānā jāy.  

2. āgam ke anusār dṛṛhatāpūrvak samyamoṃ jīvan vyatīt kiyā jāy.

3. dharmdṛṣṭi se 'pratimā-pūjan' śāstra-sammat nahīṃ hai.

4. śuddha sāttvik śākāhārī pratyek kul kā āhār liyā jā saktā hai.  

5. sthāpanācārya kī sthāpanā kī koī āvaśyaktā nahīṃ hai.  

6. upavās ādi vratoṃ meṃ sabhī prakār kā prāsuk jal liyā jā saktā hai.

7. parv-tithi ke binā bhī upavās kiyā jā saktā hai.  

8. sādhuoṃ ko mantra-tantra tathā yantra ādi vidyāoṃ kā prayog nahīṃ karnā cāhie.  

9. śrāvak bhikṣā kar saktā hai, par dān nahīṃ le saktā.  

10. dayā bhāv se garīboṃ ko dān denā pāp nahīṃ hai, apitu puṇya kā kāraṇ hai.  

11. daṇḍ nahīṃ rakhā jānā cāhie. 


Loṅkā's Sāmācārī according to Seṭh 1970 in Hindī

1. upadhān tap kiye binā bhī śāstra-abhyās karāyā jā saktā hai.  

2. jin pratimā kī dharma-dṛṣṭi se pūjā karnā 45 āgamoṃ meṃ nahīṃ hai.

3. mūl sūtra, āgam aur mūl śāstra, samasta ṭīkāoṃ ke sivāy anya āgam evaṃ ṭīkā sarvathā amānya hai.

4. vidyā kā prayog niṣiddha hai.

5. pauṣadh pratikramaṇ svatantra rīti se karnā.

6. cāturmās ke sivāy bhī pāṭ kā vyavahār jā saktā hai.

7. daṇḍ nahīṃ rakhā jānā cāhiye.  

8. pustakeṃ rakhī jā saktī haiṃ.  

9. sātviktā aur śuddhi kā dhyān rakhte hue pratyek kul meṃ gocarī kī jā saktī hai.

10. śrāvak bhī gocarī kar saktā hai.  

11. śrāvak dān nahīṃ le saktā.

12. upavās pratyākhyān meṃ chāch-pānī kī āch prāsuk le sakte haiṃ.

13. binā upavās ke bhī pauṣadh kiyā jā saktā hai.  

14. tithi-parv ke binā bhī upavās kiyā jā saktā hai.  

15. ek sāth upavās paccakkhe jā sakte haiṃ.

16. kalyāṇakoṃ ko tithi meṃ nahīṃ ginnā cāhiye.

17. jis din goras liyā jāy us din kaṭhor (dvidal dhānya) kā prayog nahīṃ honā cāhiye.  

18. sthāpanācārya kī sthāpanā anāvaśyak hai.  

19. dhovan pānī meṃ do ghaṛī ke anantar jīvotpatti sambhav hai.  

20. apātra ko dharma buddhi se dān dene se hiṃsā hotī hai (anukampā se garīb ko denā ekānta pāp kā kāraṇ nahīṃ hai). [331]


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text


Jump to occurrence in text

Share this page on:
Page glossary
Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. A Short History of the Terapanthi Sect
  2. Abhinandan
  3. Acitta
  4. Adinath
  5. Agra
  6. Ahiṃsā
  7. Ahmedabad
  8. Ajmer
  9. Anekāntavāda
  10. Anga
  11. Anthropology
  12. Anukampā
  13. Arihantas
  14. Ascetic lifestyle
  15. Aśoka
  16. Baisi
  17. Balcerowicz
  18. Bangalore
  19. Baroda
  20. Benares
  21. Berlin
  22. Berliner Indologische Studien
  23. Bhaṭṭāraka
  24. Bhaṭṭārakas
  25. Bhikṣā
  26. Bhāvnagar
  27. Bombay
  28. Buddhi
  29. Buddhism
  30. Calcutta
  31. Candra
  32. Caritra
  33. Celibacy
  34. Chojnacki
  35. Cāritra
  36. Das
  37. Daśavaikālika
  38. Daśavaikālika Sūtra
  39. Delhi
  40. Deva
  41. Dharma
  42. Dharmadāna
  43. Dharmī
  44. Dhyān
  45. Digambar
  46. Digambara
  47. Dravya
  48. Durga
  49. Dāna
  50. Ekānta
  51. Ekāsana
  52. Ernst Leumann
  53. Fasting
  54. Gaccha
  55. Gautama
  56. Girnār
  57. Gujarat
  58. Guru
  59. Gurudev
  60. Hemacandra
  61. Hermann Jacobi
  62. Hinduism
  63. Hiṃsā
  64. Indologica Taurinensia
  65. JAINA
  66. Jacobi
  67. Jain Dharma
  68. Jaina
  69. Jaina Art
  70. Jaina Canon
  71. Jaina Studies Workshop At SOAS
  72. Jaina Viśva Bhāratī
  73. Jainadharma
  74. Jainism
  75. Jayanti
  76. Jin
  77. Jina
  78. Jinaśāsana
  79. Jodhpur
  80. Jīva
  81. Jīvana
  82. Kalpa
  83. Kalpa Sūtra
  84. Kalyāṇaka
  85. Karma
  86. Kundakunda
  87. Kāla
  88. L.D. Institute Of Indology
  89. Leumann
  90. London
  91. Loṅkā
  92. Mahāvratas
  93. Mahāvīra
  94. Mandir
  95. Mantra
  96. Maṇḍapa
  97. Mithyātva
  98. Motilal Banarsidass
  99. Muhapatti
  100. Mumbai
  101. Muni
  102. Muni Nathmal
  103. Munis
  104. Murtipujak
  105. Mīmāṃsā
  106. Mūrti
  107. Mūrtipūjaka
  108. Naya
  109. New Delhi
  110. Niryukti
  111. Niyam
  112. Niyama
  113. Niścaya Naya
  114. Niśītha
  115. Nāgpur
  116. Padmanabh S. Jaini
  117. Pakṣa
  118. Parigraha
  119. Parva
  120. Paryuṣaṇa
  121. Prabhu
  122. Prabhāvanā
  123. Prasad
  124. Pratham
  125. Pratikramaṇa
  126. Pratimā
  127. Pratiṣṭhā
  128. Pratyākhyāna
  129. Prof. Dr. Christine Chojnacki
  130. Prof. Dr. John Cort
  131. Prof. Dr. John E. Cort
  132. Prof. Dr. Jozef Deleu
  133. Prof. Dr. Klaus Bruhn
  134. Prof. Dr. Ludwig Alsdorf
  135. Prof. Dr. Piotr Balcerowicz
  136. Prof. Olle Qvarnström
  137. Puja
  138. Puṇya
  139. Pāpa
  140. Pārśvanāth Vidyāpīṭh
  141. Pārśvanātha
  142. Pūjā
  143. Riches and Renunciation
  144. Rohtak
  145. Rājasthān
  146. Rāma
  147. SOAS
  148. SS
  149. Sabha
  150. Sabhā
  151. Sacred Books of the East
  152. Samiti
  153. Sammelan
  154. Samyaktva
  155. San Diego
  156. Sanskrit
  157. Sarasvati
  158. Satrunjaya
  159. Satya
  160. Saṅgha
  161. Schubring
  162. Shwetambar
  163. Smṛti
  164. Stavan
  165. Sthānakavāsī
  166. Sthāpanā
  167. Surat
  168. Sutta
  169. Svetambar
  170. Svetambara
  171. Svādhyāya
  172. Swetambar
  173. Sādhanā
  174. Sādhu
  175. Sādhus
  176. Sādhvīs
  177. Sāmāyika
  178. Sūtra
  179. Sūtrakṛtāṅga
  180. Tap
  181. Tapa
  182. Tapas
  183. Tattva
  184. Terapanthi
  185. Terāpanthīs
  186. Tithi
  187. Toronto
  188. Tīrtha
  189. Upadhāna
  190. Upavāsa
  191. Upādhyāya
  192. Uttarādhyayana
  193. Vandana
  194. Varanasi
  195. Vidyalaya
  196. Vidyā
  197. Violence
  198. Viyāhapannatti (Bhagavaī)
  199. Vyavahāra Naya
  200. Vīra
  201. Vṛtti
  202. Walther Schubring
  203. World Sanskrit Conference
  204. Yantra
  205. Yati
  206. Yatis
  207. Yoga
  208. cāturmāsa
  209. Ācārya
  210. Ādhākarma
  211. Āgama
  212. Āgamas
  213. Ārādhanā
  214. Āvaśyaka
  215. ācāryas
  216. āgama
  217. Śataka
  218. Śramaṇ
  219. Śrāvaka
  220. Śvetāmbara
Page statistics
This page has been viewed 1725 times.
© 1997-2021 HereNow4U, Version 4.07
Contact us
Social Networking

HN4U Deutsche Version
Today's Counter: