Power and Insight in Jain Discourse VIII

Published: 19.02.2016

— VIII —

In this essay, I proposed a theoretical interpretation of syncretic processes as forms of symbolic communication, broadly following Habermas' analyses of systematically distorted and latent strategic action, predicated on the work of Grice and sociolinguists such as Hymes, Gumperz, Fishman and Brown and Levinson. The advantage of this perspective, compared to classical hermeneutics, is that social processes within a religious tradition do not have to be understood in terms of an enactment or actualising appropriation of textual meaning, or of rule-specification, but can be investigated as open historical processes for which religious knowledge and linguistic repertoire serves as cognitive resource, which can be used for the pursuit of either power or insight. To the extent that cognition and discourse are historically relevant, production of social meaning and co-operation can be understood in terms of the conditions of acceptability of validity claims. Rarely do human insight and instrumental rationality take precedence over habit and contingencies of life. GADAMER's (1993: 244) objection to Habermas' 'idealisation of the critical power of reflection' and reasons in discourse is therefore justified. However, Habermas' theory of communicative action is more narrowly concerned with a critique of both latent strategic action and mediated systemic forms of social reproduction, without illusions about the overwhelming factual role of power and indeterminacy in contemporary social processes. FOUCAULT's (1981: 56) more radical attack on the repressive aspects of discourse as a form of power itself, especially discourses informed by the 'will to truth' backed up by exclusionary mechanisms, nevertheless puts its finger on a crucial problem in both moral philosophy and organised religion. Habermas' theory of communicative action certainly does not properly account for the poetic 'world-disclosing' function of language, nor for the historical conditions of the theorisation of the 'universal' validity claims itself, which it merely takes as a primitive given of 'successful' prosaic communication. Both SEARLE (1993: 91 f., 99) and APEL (1993: 52 f.), despite their differences, criticise the hidden essentialism of this approach as 'functionalist' (in an old-fashioned sense), and suggest that the acceptance of validity conditions is a contingent 'perlocutionary effect' of the strategic attempt of getting the hearer to agree—an attempt which initially only commits the speaker (as the Jain example shows). Moreover, Habermas' original approach privileges the educated classes, and neglects empirical cases of reaching agreement or dissent through open strategic uses of language. Yet, the alternative reduction of validity to an effect of universally present 'empirico-transcendental' power in Foucault's or similar theoretical scenarios currently en vogue in Jaina Studies forecloses the possibility of problematising legitimacy once and for all. This, however, seems unwise, not least because, empirically, the sources of power and legitimacy often do not coincide. This is one of the reasons why DUMONT's (1980: xxxi) distinction between (political) power (pouvoir) and (religious) potency (puissance) has gained currency in South Asia research.

Classical Jainism derives its legitimacy ontologically from the presumed direct meditative insight of its omniscient prophets (tīrthaṅkara) into the eternal truth of existence (sat), i.e. the difference between self (jīva) and non-self (ajīva). Those who know, who have experienced direct insight, it is said, share an experiential consensus which transcends discourse and rational argument. However, discourse and argument is necessary for the dispersion of religious knowledge amongst the ignorant, although, initially, it can only facilitate first experiences of insight (samyag-darśana) by providing some of its conditions through instruction, but not generate insight itself. For Jain doctrine, insight is a psychophysical event which is unexplainable, a mysterious transformation of consciousness, which may or may not occur, once karmic bondage is weakened and religious knowledge fuses with personal experience. Paradigmatic activating conditions of insight are temporary feelings of peace accompanied with 'instructing' experiences of loss, suffering, or the sight of a saint. Verbal instruction (upadeśa) and suggestion (dhvani) may also provoke sudden insight (as a perlocutionary effect).[330] In practice, it usually does so only after a previous history of interaction, involving rational argument and agonistic debate, which prepares the epistemic ground for 'true' or 'dogmatic' insight, which may then be triggered circumstantially, for instance by fitting experiences.

I have not discussed the metaphysics and the psychological conditions of religious experience in this essay,[331] especially not the hypothetical experiences of the Jinas, but confined myself to the analysis of the conditions of understanding and accepting Jain religious claims as legitimate (Einsicht) and of fulfilment of their pragmatic implications. My argument rests on the observation of a principal two-stage process of Jain religious conversion: first, largely through agonistic discourse, based on rational argument, and, second, largely through non-agonistic instruction.[332] Although, in principle, an initiated disciple 'cannot say "no"' (BLOCH (1975: 19)) to transmitted Jain doctrine anymore after the 'initial acceptance of the code' (BLOCH (1975: 24)), and subsequently receives religious instruction from his seniors predominantly in the mode of unquestioned conformity to revealed fundamental truth,[333] debate and rational argument continue on the basis of the accepted ontological and organisational principles (TS 9.25). In other words, although it is predicated on the acceptance of the validity of ultimately incommunicable evidence or feelings, Jain religious discourse, too, is confined to the level of conventional truth (VN), because 'whatever is beyond the province of speech is inexpressible (or unspeakable)' (TULSÎ (1985: 190)). According to the proposed model, Jainism appeals to rationality and insight in different ways on both idealtypical developmental stages of conversion, and constitutes a kind of therapeutic discourse, which thrives on the interpretation of experience through a pedagogical scheme of explanation, which runs contrary to everyday perceptions and opens up new perspectives, thus inevitably generating ambiguity by 'splitting the codes' (TURNER (1986: 56))[334] and thereby producing the potential for a transformation of meaning and, subsequently, conduct.

Because the appeal to rationality is predominant in Jain discourse, which conventionally contrasts the three jewels (ratna-traya) of right insight (samyag-darśana), right knowledge (samyag-jñāna) and right conduct (samyak-cāritra) to 'blind ritualism',[335] it seemed legitimate to privilege the perspective of the ascetics in this essay, which are trained in Jain doctrine. The importance of their power of persuasion for the continuation of the Jain tradition is a universal topos of Jain narrative and biographical literature. There, the problem of the moral ambivalence of religious rhetoric is explicitly addressed as a form of necessary violence (āvassayahiṁsā <āvaśyaka-hiṁsā>), to be repented by means of the obligatory ascetic rites (āvaśyaka). I have not discussed technical Jain theories of suggestion, implication, figures of speech, or narrative genres, nor any particular linguistic exchange in the manner of the ethnography of speaking, but concentrated on the principles of Jain discourse itself, particularly the ones concerning the illegitimacy of 'unnecessary violent' (anāvassaya hiṁsā) speech. In this way, I hope to have shown how structures of traditional authority together with the constraints of given circumstances directly or indirectly pre-empt processes of negotiated meaning by channelling them in a certain direction. Even if the principles of rational inquiry are upheld by Jain doctrine,[336] open critical inquiry as defined by the theory of communicative action in not possible within the confines of the traditional religious institutions.

The comparison between the theory of communicative action and Jain discourse ethics showed nevertheless significant similarities. Both approaches are rule-oriented, not goal-oriented. That is, they are concerned with the general interest of many, not with the eudaemonic perspective of a single actor, despite the fact that the methods of universalisation are different. The respective ideals of consensus and non-violence mutually implicate each other. Basic non-violence is presupposed by communicative action, and the general interest of all is presupposed by universal non-violence. Though the criterion of generalisability, equal interest, is not theorised in Jain philosophy, and only touched upon with reference to specific negative rights such as the privileged case of the universal interest in avoiding pain,[337] the scope of the moral universe is extended from humanity to all living beings, whose essential spiritual equality is a fundamental principle of Jaina philosophy.[338] The vanishing points of both theories, the ideal consensus of an infinite community of interpretation and the ideal omniscient observer, presuppose absolute knowledge and absolute consensus. Yet, there are two significant differences. The main difference between the transcendental pragmatics of mutual recognition and the monadological Jain ethics of non-violence concerns the nature of the fundamental principles. The former is predicated on positive norms and the latter on norms of prohibition.[339] The implicit method of universalisation of Jain ethics is the double negation, that is, the negation of non-generalisable statements. The resulting priority of physical non-action as a theoretical limiting case (not as a practical maxim) unburdens the doctrine of discussions of specific dilemmas of norm application, thus safeguarding both generalisability and contextual determinateness, while maintaining a perspective of disengagement with the world and non-specific positive duties. The second main difference between the two types of discourse ethics concerns the moral division of labour presupposed by Jain norms of discourse, which does not permit equal communicative freedom to take positions on validity claims, but privileges institutionally verified competent speakers (āpta).[340] Having emerged under historical conditions of normative inequality, Jain discourse ethics is not at all concerned with questions of human justice, only with negative individual freedom.

Dumont and Marriott posed the question whether Jainism, built from the same materials as other South Asian religions, can be interpreted as a blueprint for the formation of 'strategic groups', for instance by being connected with a set of specific procedures or dominant strategies, which are derived either from the structure of its dominant ideological codes jīva / ajīva and ahiṁsā / hiṁsā and / or the characteristic social position of its dominant lay-followers. Put in this way, any answer of the question must be vulnerable to the critique of socio-cultural 'essentialism' as 'ahistorical' and 'reductionist'. But to ask which principles and procedures the Jains themselves regard as 'essential' for the validation of their own politics of cultural synthesis remains indispensable. At least five derivative, and still accepted, paradigmatic pragmatic orientations for contexts of interaction between mendicants and non-mendicants can be isolated on the basis of the Āyār and the DVS: (1) impersonalisation, (2) nominalisation (objectivation), (3) degrees of non-speech, silence, and selective non-interaction, and (4) avoiding disagreement by presupposing common ground. All these strategies leave a speaker with a number of defensible interpretations which are technically neither true nor false (satyāsatya) and therefore useful to gloss over gaps between the often contradictory doctrinal and contextual implications of a speech act. The first three strategy types are those of negative politeness, which generally emphasise the mutual autonomy and non-interference of the interlocutors, for instance, by transforming directives into assertives. The last strategy type is a specific instance of positive politeness strategies, which are used to avoid conflict (and thus violence). For the same purpose off-record strategies are employed, which are considered as legitimate forms of symbolic violence, if used for the furtherance of religious insight. The overall result of this preliminary investigation of Jain discourse resonates with PAINE's (1981: 3) and BRENNEIS'–MYERS' (1984: 12) observation that in many societies, especially in those without elaborated hierarchies or structures of open coercion, conflict or contradiction, while often endemic, is rarely discussed openly, and expressed confrontation or coercion avoided through indirect speech, oriented toward the creation or maintenance of co-operation and the attainment of basic consensus, without saying so. Of course, not only particular speech acts but even the Jain maxims themselves can be read as generalised strategies, because they embody a certain directionality or orientation toward the world. The differentia specifica between the elements of Jain ontology and those of the culturally dominant religious systems of Hinduism, then, opens up negatively determined spaces for a distinct style of communicative action and rhetorical manipulation with characteristic multiple ambiguities and syncretic effects to be studied by future sociolinguistic investigations of Jain discourse.


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MONIER-WILLIAMS 1986 = Monier-Williams, Monier: Sanskrit-English Dictionary. New Edition, Greatly Enlarged and Improved. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1899 [reprinted: Marwah Publications, New Delhi 1986].

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MURTI 1955 = Murti, Tirupattur Ramaseshayyar Venkatachala: The Central Philosophy of Buddhism: A Study of the Mādhyamika System. Allen and Unwin, London 1955.

NSā = Kundakunda: Niyama-sāra. Uggar Jain (ed., tr.): Niyamasāra of Kundakunda. Sacred Books of the Jainas Vol. 9, Jagmandarlal Jaini Memorial Series 5, The Central Jaina Publishing House, Lucknow 1931.

NYAYAVIJAYA 1998 = Nyayavijaya: Jaina Philosophy and Religion. Translated by Nagin J.Shah. Motilal Banarsidas, Delhi 1998 [Gujarātī Original: Jaina Darśana. Jainasahityamandira, Pune 1935].

OETKE 1991 = Oetke, Klaus: Zur Methode der Analyse Philosophischer Sūtratexte: Die Pramāṇa Passagen der Nyāyasūtras. Verlag für Orientalistische Fachpublikationen, Reinbeck 1991.

OETKE 1997 = Oetke, Klaus: 'Pragmatic Principles and Maxims of Interpretation.' Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik 21 (1997) 133–52.

OHIRA 1994 = Ohira, Suzuko: A Study of the Bhagavaīsūtra. A Chronological Analysis. Prakrit Text Society, Ahmedabad 1994.

OKUDA 1975 = Okuda, Kiyaoaki. Eine Digambara-Dogmatik: Das fünfte Kapitel von Vaṭṭakeras Mūlācāra herausgegeben, übersetzt und kommentiert. Franz Steiner Verlag, Wiesbaden 1975.

PAINE 1981 = Paine, Robert: 'Introduction', in: Robert Paine (ed.): Politically Speaking: Cross-Cultural Studies of Rhetoric. Institute for the Study of Human Issues, Philadelphia 1981: 1–6.

PANDHARIPANDE 2006 = Pandharipande, Rajeshwari V.: 'Ideology, Authority, and Language Choice: Language of Religion in South Asia', in: Tope Omoniyi, Joshua A. Fishman (eds.): Explorations in the Sociology of Language and Religion. John Benjamins Publishing, Amsterdam 2006: 141–64.

Paṇṇ = Paṇṇavaṇā-sutta [Prajñāpanā-sūtra]. Muni Puṇyavijaya, Pt. Dalsukh Mālvaṇiyā, Pt. Amritlāl Mohanlāl Bhojak. (eds.): Paṇṇavaṇā (Prajñāpanā). Jaina-āgama-Series No. 9, Part 1–2. Mahāvīra Jaina Vidyālaya, Bombay 1969–1971. See also: PaṇṇṬ, PaṇṇV.

PaṇṇṬ = Malayagiri: Prajñāpanā-ṭīkā. (1) Śrīmac-chyāmācārya-dṛbdhaṁ śrīman-malayagiryācārya-vihita-vivaraṇa-yutaṁ śrī-prajñāpanṁpāṅgaṁ (Pūrvārddhaṁ). Agamṁdāya-samiti, Mehasāna 1918, 1919 [printed: Nirṇaya-Sāgara Press, Bombay]. (2) Paṇḍit Bhagavānadāsa Harṣacandra [Anuvādaka ane Saṁśodhaka] (ed.): VācakavaraBhagavad-ārya-śyāmācārya-viracita. Mūla tathā śrīmad-ācāryaMalayagiri-viracita ṭīkānā Anuvāda-sahita. Bhāg I–III. Jaina Sosāyaṭī, Amadāvāda (Ahmedabad) 1935.

PaṇṇV = Haribhadra-sūri: Prajñāpanā-vyākhyā (Pūrvabhāgaḥ). Åṣabha-devakesarī-malajī [Mudrayiśrī] (ed.): Su-vahita-dhurandhara-sāhityasaudhānanya-staṁbhṁpama-śrī-Haribhadra-Sūri-sūtrita-pradeśavyākhyā-saṁkalitaṁ. Phakīrcanda Maganalāla Badāmī, Jainavijayānanda Prinṭīṅg Pres, Surat 1947.

PASU = Amṛtacandra-sūri: Puruṣārtha-siddhy-upāya. Ajit Prasada (ed., tr.): Purushartha-Siddhyupaya (Jaina-pravachana-rahasya-kosha), with an Introduction, Translation and Original Commentaries in English. J.L. Jaini Memorial Seiries VI, Abhinandan Prasada Jindal, The Central Publishing House, Ajitashram, Lucknow 1933.

PEUKERT 1984 = Peukert, Helmut: Science, Action, and Fundamental Theology: Toward a Theology of Communicative Action. Translated from the original German by James Bohman. MIT Press, Cambridge (Massachusetts) 1984 [first edition: Wissenschaftstheorie – Handlungstheorie – fundamentale Theologie: Analysen zu Ansatz und Status theologischer Theoriebildung. Patmos, Düsseldorf 1976].

PEUKERT 1992 = Peukert, Helmut: 'Fundamental Theology and Communicative Praxis as the Ethics of Universal Solidarity', in: REIMER (1992: 221–46).

PH = Aristotle: Peri Hermeneias. E.M. Edghill (tr.); On Interpretation. In: W.D. Ross (ed.): The Works of Aristotle, Volume 1: Logic. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1928 [http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/interpretation.html].

PIAGET 1937 = Piaget, Jean: La construction du réel chez l'enfant. Delachaux et Niestlé, Paris 1937.

PIATIGORSKY 1985 = Piatigorsky, Alexander: 'Some Phenomenological Observations on the Study of Indian Religion', in: BURGHART–CANTLIE (1985: 208–58).

POTTER 1970 = Potter, Karl: 'Realism, Speech-acts, and Truth-gaps in Indian and Western Philosophy.' Journal of Indian Philosophy 1,1 (1970) 13–21.

POTTER 1984 = Potter, Karl: 'A Speech-Act Model for Understandig Navya-Nyāya Epistemology', in: Bimal Krishna Matilal, Jaysankar Lal Shaw (eds.): Analytical Philosophy in Comparative Perspective. D. Reidel, Dordrecht 1984: 213–230.

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PYE 2003 = Pye, Michael: Skilful Means: A Concept in Mahayana Buddhism. Second Edition. Routledge, London 2003 [first edition: 1978].

RAJU 1954 = Raju, P. T.: 'The Principle of Four-Cornered Negation in Indian Philosophy.' Review of Metaphysics 7 (1954) 694–713.

RAMSEY 1967 = Ramsey, Ian Thomas: Religious Language: An Empirical Placing of Theological Phrases. SCM Press, London 1967 [first edition: 1957].

RATNACANDRA 1988 = Ratnacandra, Muni: Sacitra Ardhamāgadhī Koṣa. Bhāg 1–5. Motilal Banarsidas, Delhi 1988 [first edition: 1923].

REIMER 1992 = Reimer, A. James (ed.): The Influence of the Frankfurt School on Contemporary Theology: Critical Theory and the Future of Religion. Dubrovnik Papers in Honour of Rudolph J. Siebert. The Edwin Mellon Press, Lewiston 1992.

RENOU 1955 = Renou, Louis: 'Les pouvoirs de la parole dans le Åg Veda.' Études Védiques et Panineennes 1 (1955) 1–27.

ROBINSON 1957 = Robinson, Richard H.: 'Some Logical Aspects of Nāgārjuna's System.' Philosophy East & West 6,4 (1957) 291–308.

RUDOLPH–RUDOLPH 1984 = Rudolph, Susanne Hoeber; Rudolph, Lloyd I.: Essays on Rajputana: Reflections on History, Culture and Administration. Concept Publishing, New Delhi 1984.

RUSSELL 1905 = Russell, Bertrand: 'On Denoting.' Mind 14 (1905) 479–93.

RYAN 1998 = Ryan, James: 'Erotic Excess and Sexual Danger in the Civakacintāmaṅi.' J. E. Cort (ed.): Open Boundaries: Jain Communities and Culture in Indian History. State University of New York Press, Albany 1998: 67–84.

SAMARIAN 1969 = Samarian, William J.: 'Introduction', in: William J. Samarian (ed.): Language in Religious Practice. Newbury House Publiahers, Rowley 1969: 1–13.

SANGAVE 1980 = Sangave, Vilas A.: Jaina Community. 2nd Revised Edition. Popular Prakashan, Bombay 1980 [first edition: 1959].

SCHARF 1995 = Scharf, Peter M.: 'Early Indian Grammarians on a Speaker's Intention.' Journal of the American Oriental Society 115,1 (1995) 66–76.

SCHAYER 1933 = Schayer, Stanis³aw: 'Altindische Antizipationen der Aussagenlogik.' Bulletin International de l'Academie Polonaise des Sciences et des Lettres, Classe de Philologie (1933) 90–96 [English translation: by Joerg Tuske (tr.): 'Ancient Indian Anticipations of Propositional Logic.' Jonardon Ganeri (ed.): Indian Logic: A Reader. Curzon Press, London 2001: 96–101].

SCHMITHAUSEN 1981 = Schmithausen, Lambert: 'On some Aspects of Descriptions or Theories of Liberating Insight" and "Enlightenment" in Early Buddhism.' Klaus Bruhn, Albrecht Wezler (eds.): Studien zum Jainismus und Buddhismus. Gedenkschrift für Ludwig Alsdorf. Franz Steiner Verlag, Wiesbaden 1981.

SCHOPENHAUER 1977 = Schopenhauer, Arthur: Parerga und Paralipomena II.1. Diogenes Verlag, Zürich 1977 [first edition: 1850. English translation: Parerga and Paralipomena. Translated by E.F.J. Payne. Clarendon, Oxford 1974].

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SCHUBRING 1932 = Schubring, Walther, see: DVS1.

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SEAL 1968 = Seal, Anil: The Emergence of Indian Nationalism. Competition and Collaboration in the Later Nineteenth Century. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1968.

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SEYFORT RUEGG 1977 = Seyfort Ruegg, David: 'The Uses of the Four Positions of the Catuṣkoṭi and the Problem of the Description of Reality in Mahāyāna Buddhism.' Journal of Indian Philosophy 5 (1977) 1–71.

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SHARF 1995 = Sharf, Robert H.: 'Buddhist Modernism and the Rhetoric of Meditative Experience.' Numen 42,3 (1995) 228–83.

SHARP 1960 = Sharp, Gene: Gandhi Wields the Weapon of Moral Power: Three Case Histories. Navajivan Publishing, Ahmedabad 1960.

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SINGER 1961 = Singer, Marcus George: Generalization in Ethics: An Essay in the Logic of Ethics, with the Rudiments of a System of Moral Philosophy. Alfred A. Knopf, New York 1961.

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SMART 1965 = Smart, Ninian: 'Interpretation and Mystical Experience.' Religious Studies 1 (1965) 75–87.

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SN = Sutta-nipāta. Michael Viggo Fausböll (tr.): The Sutta-Nipāta. A Collection of Discourses Being One of the Collection of the Canonical Books of the Buddhists. Translated from the Pāli. The Sacred Books of the East X, Part II. The Clarendon Press, Oxford 1881.

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SSā = Kundakunda: Samaya-sāra. A. Chakravarti (ed., tr.): Āchārya Kundakunda's Samayasāra, with English translation and commentary based upon Amṛtacandra's Ātmakhyāti. Bharatiya Jnanpith, New Delhi, 1989.

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Sūy = Sūya-gaḍaṁga [Sūtra-kṛtāṅga]. English translation: JACOBI (1895: 235–435).

ŚrPr = Umāsvāti: Śrāvaka-prajñapti. Balacandra Sastri (ed.): Haribhadrasūri-viracita-vṛtti-samanvita; hindī anuvāda, prastāvanā, tathā anukramaṇikā-sahita sampādana-anuvāda. Bhāratīya Jñānapīṭha, Nayi Dilli 1999.

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TATIA 1951 = Tatia, Nathmal: Studies in Jaina Philosophy. Jain Cultural Research Society, Varanasi 1951.

TATIA–KUMAR 1981 = Tatia, Nathmal & Muni Mahendra Kumar: Aspects of Jaina Monasticism. Jain Vishva Bharati, Ladnun 1981.

Ṭhāṇ = Ṭhāṇaṁga-sutta [Sthānāṅga-sūtra]. (1) Acārya Tulsī [Vācaka Pramukha], Muni Nathmal [Sampādaka Vivecaka], Acārya Mahāprajña (eds.): Thāṇaṁ (Mūl Pāṭh, Saṁskṛt Chāyā, Hindī Anuvāda tathā Ṭippaṇa). Jaina Viśva Bhāratī, Lāḍnūṁ 1976. (2) Muni Jambūvijaya [Sampādak] (ed.): Sthānāṅga-sūtram. Navāṅgī-ṭīkākāra-śrī-Abhayadeva-sūri-viracita-vivaraṇa-sametaṁ. Bhāg I–III. Jaina-āgama-Granthamālā 19 (1–3). Mahāvīra Jaina Vidyālaya, Muṁbaī 2002–2003. (3) Uttara Bhāratīya Pravartaka Amar Muni [Pradhāna Sampādaka], Śrīcand Surānā 'Saras' [Saha-Sampādaka] (eds.): Sacitra Sthānāṅga Sūtra. Bhāg I–II. Mūla Pāṭh-HindīAṅgrezī Anuvāda, Vivecana evaṁ Raṅgīna Citroṁ Sahita. Padma Prakāśa, Dillī 2004.

TÖNNIES 1887 = Tönnies, Ferdinand. Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft: Abhandlung des Communismus und des Socialismus als empirischer Culturformen. Leipzig 1887 [English translation: Community and Society. Translated by Charles P. Loomis. The Michigan State University Press, East Lansing 1957].

TS = Umāsvāti / Umāsvāmin: Tattvārtha-sūtra. Nathmal Tatia (tr.): That Which Is. With the combined commentaries of Umāsvāti / Umāsvāmī, Pūjyapāda and Siddhasenagani. Harper Collins, New York 1994.

TULSÎ 1985 = Tulsī, Ācārya: Illumination of Jaina Tenets (Jaina-SiddhāntaDīpikā). Translated by Satakari Mookerjee. Jain Vishva Bharati, Ladnun 1985 [first edition: 1945].

TURNER 1986 = Turner, Victor: The Forest of Symbols. Cornell University Press, Ithaca 1986 [first edition: 1967].

TYLER 1978 = Tyler, Stephen A.: The Said and the Unsaid: Mind, Meaning, and Culture. Academic Press, New York 1978.

UD = Uvāsaga-dasāo [Upāsaka-daśāḥ / Upāsakādhyayana-daśāḥ]. A.F. Rudolf Hoernle (tr.): The Uvāsaga-dasāo or the Religious Profession of the Uvāsaga Expounded in Ten Lectures Being the Seventh Anga of the Jains Translated from the Original Prakrit with Copies and Notes. The Asiatic Society, Calcutta 1885–1890.

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VELUTHAT 1978 = Veluthat, Kesavan: 'Royalty and Divinity: Legitimisation of Monarchical Power in South India.' 39th Session of the Indian History Congress, Hyderabad (1978) 241–49.

VĀBh = Jinabhadra: Viśeṣāvaśyaka-bhāṣā. Dalasukha Malavaniya (ed.): Śrī-jinabhadra-gaṇi-kṣamā-śramaṇa-viracitaṁ Viśeṣāvaśyakabhāṣyam. Svopajña-vṛtti-sahitam. Lālabhai Dalapatabhai Bhāratīya Saṁskṛti Vidyāmandira, Amadavada 1966–1968.

Viy = Viyāha-pannatti [Bhagavatī-sūtra]. (1) DELEU (1970). (2) Kustur Chand Lalwani (tr.): Sudharma Svāmī's Bhagavatī Sūtra. Prakrit Text with English Translation of śatakas 1–11. Vol. 1–4. Jain Bhawan, Calcutta 1973–1985.

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YŚ = Hemacandra-sūri: Yoga-śāstra. Olle Qvarnström (tr.): The Yogaśāstra of Hemacandra. A Twelfth Century Handbook on Śvetāmbara Jainism. Harvard Oriental Series Vol. 61, Cambridge (Massachusetts) 2002

YT = Somadeva-sūri: Yaśas-tilaka. See HANDIQUI (1968).


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  128. Veda
  129. Violence
  130. Viyāhapannatti (Bhagavaī)
  131. Vācanā
  132. Walther Schubring
  133. janma
  134. Āchārya
  135. Ācārya
  136. Ācārāṅga
  137. Āryā
  138. Śvetāmbara
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